Quo Vadis JPEG : Future of ISO /T.81

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1 Quo Vadis JPEG : Future of ISO /T /T.81 is still the dominant standard for photographic images An entire toolchain exists to record, manipulate and display images encoded in this specification Market penetration of JPEG 2000 and JPEG XR is very low in the digital camera market. Can we extend carefully without breaking too much of this toolchain to address the main deficiencies of the specs?

2 Compatibility Issues Only a small subset of is in wide use only baseline, sequential and progressive mode are popular only up to four components (single scan sequential or progressive) are seen, though up to 255 components are possible only 8bpp images are in popular use, though 12bpp is available Medical industry uses 12bpp and lossless ( predictive ) mode Arithmetic coding mode is not seen in the wild Hierarchical mode is not seen in the wild.

3 10918 Issues Alpha channel support missing this is a file format issue to annotate the components Backwards compatible lossless mode is missing the predictive coding mode is an entirely different codec that is not understood by the typical JPEG toolchain Backwards compatible support for >8bpp is missing 12bpp mode is not supported by most implementations.

4 Goals: Can we extend carefully such that the current toolchain remains working, though does probably not support all features of the new standard for example, decoding a losslessly encoded image with some minor loss for example decode a >8bpp image to 8bpp (automatic LDR rendering of HDR images) compression performance is not the primary goal, but compatibility is. Performance is secondary. several possibilities will be discussed and compared with the state of the art Teaser: Backwards compatible lossless JPEG with the performance of PNG is possible.

5 Decoder Design T Decoder Upsampling L-Trafo L1-Lut L2-Lut L3-Lut exp (cast) Refinement Scan S-Trafo NL S-Lut Residual Decoder Noiseshaping Upsampling R1-Lut R2-Lut R3-Lut H-Trafo Composition of several designs: Refinement coding Additive Residual coding Multiplicative Residual Coding (Stuttgart proposal) (Dolby proposal)

6 Tone Mapping A lookup table that maps HDR data to LDR data, and vice versa at the decoder. How to arrive at a tone mapping curve is not defined in the specifications this is a matter of the implementation. Only the inverse tone mapping curve at the decoder is included in the bitstream. The encoder has to find the inverse of the inverse. Note that the input data could be even floating point without any change in the coder design it is just a matter of how to interpret the bit pattern and how to build the TMO.

7 Color Transformation Is (mathematically) identical to the RGB to YcbCr transformation specified in JFIF But coefficients are specified: Fixpoint algebra, 13 fractional bits, output is not integer, but fixpoint with 4 fractional bits Must become part of the standard (unlike in )

8 DCT Operation Is an unscaled fixpoint DCT Similar to the color transformation, the coefficients and the algorithm must be specified precisely (for residual and lossless coding) Coefficients are specified in fixpoint with 9 fractional bits 32 bit implementation precision is sufficient for 12bpp input data

9 Quantization Unmodified from Followed by a split-off in MSBs and LSBs. Split off is a shift for DC (round to - ) and a division for AC (round to 0) This is the same rule used for the point transformation of 10918

10 Legacy Scan Types: Scan Types Transmits the MSBs of the tone mapped data All block based scan types has to offer: Sequential, progressive (Huffman and AC) Refinement Scan: Transmits the LSBs of the tone mapped data MSB/LSB split off by means of a point transformation not signaled in the legacy coder, but in a separate marker Scan type is a compliant refinement scan (subsequent scan of a progressive scan) extending the legacy scan type.

11 Residual Scan: Scan Types Transmits the quantized coding error Uses a traditional progressive scan, on 8x8 blocks in the spatial domain, except that the left-top pixel ( DC ) is not handled separately, but AC coding is used for all pixels. Smarter coding schemes (context modeling) do not improve the coding performance substantially (<1%)

12 Additive Residual Coding T Decoder Upsampling L-Trafo L1-Lut L2-Lut L3-Lut exp (cast) Refinement Scan S-Trafo NL S-Lut Residual Decoder Noiseshaping Upsampling R1-Lut R2-Lut R3-Lut H-Trafo Optimal R/D performance Lossless Coding Floating Point Coding Supported

13 Refinement Coding T Decoder Upsampling L-Trafo L1-Lut L2-Lut L3-Lut exp (cast) Refinement Scan S-Trafo NL S-Lut Residual Decoder Noiseshaping Upsampling R1-Lut R2-Lut R3-Lut H-Trafo Simplest possibility for HDR coding Very easy to implement R/D performance is non-ideal

14 Multiplicative Coding T Decoder Upsampling L-Trafo L1-Lut L2-Lut L3-Lut exp (cast) Refinement Scan S-Trafo NL S-Lut Residual Decoder Noiseshaping Upsampling R1-Lut R2-Lut R3-Lut H-Trafo Design is compatible to Dolby JPEG-HDR Codestream syntax is a bit different Floating Point Coding Supported

15 Encoder Design (Refinement & add. residual coding) TMO RGB to YCbCr FixPt FDCT QNT MSB LSB Legacy Scan Types Refinement Scan APP9 FINE marker - TMO -1 YcbCr to RGB FixPt IDCT Inverse QNT Refinement Coding Residual Coding RCT Noise Shaping QNT Residual Scan APP9 RESI marker

16 Experiments Input data was taken from the core2 test set and the OpenEXR test image set, first converted to 16-bit float (half-float) for consistency. Note that due to the tone mapping the codec does not even need to know whether the input data is integer or floating point. TMO input is the bit pattern of the floating point numbers. Participating codecs: JPEG 2000 (floating point coding as in AMD.3 of ) JPEG XR (half-float RGB pixel type) JPEG-HDR (hdrcvt by Greg Ward, M. Simmons) JPEG extensions using residual coding only JPEG extensions using residual and refinement coding External rate allocation for JPEG, JPEG XR JPEG extensions uses a simplified version of the Reinhard tonemapper, with or without gamma adaption.

17 Notes on hdrcvt Published by G. Ward and M.Simmons in ACM Siggraph Builds a LDR version of the HDR image by TMO similar to here, But encodes the quotient of HDR over LDR A precursor of Dolby's JPEG-HDR.

18 Measurements Identical to the JPEG XR core experiments on HDR HDR Image Codec exrpptm LDR exrpptm SSIM PSNR HDR SNR Measure SNR in the HDR regime, MS-MSSIM and PSNR after tonemapping with exrpptm

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24 Conclusions The JPEG extensions work generally well, with residual coding working better than refinement coding. For low bitrates, the coders are not competitive (not a surprise) In general, the JPEG extensions work better than hdrcvt (JPEG-HDR) Results depend on how extreme the lighting conditions are and how far the automatic TMO provided by the codec differs from the intended TMO. JPEG-Extensions Demo Implementation plus Working Draft: JPEG-Online Test:

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