# ENGR 101 Engineering Design Workshop

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1 ENGR 101 Engineering Design Workshop Lecture 2: Variables, Statements/Expressions, if-else Edgardo Molina City College of New York

2 Literals, Variables, Data Types, Statements and Expressions

3 Python as Calculator # add 4 2 * 3 # multiply 6 Integers 3**2 # powers (whole numbers) 9 12 % 11 # modulo (remainder) 1

4 Integer Division 6//2 # division 3 5//2 # integer division, no decimals 2 4*(1//4) Careful 0

5 A Float Division 6/2 # division / *(1.0/4.0) 1.0 single / will always perform floating point division in Python 3.

6 Literals (are fixed values) Numbers Integers are natural numbers:..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2,... (32 bits) Floats contain decimals: 4.5, , 7E2... Booleans: True, False Long int s that exceed 32 bit capacity Complex numbers: 4.5, 1j * 1j = j Strings Strings are used to represent words, text, and characters examples (can use single, double or triple quotes): "I am learning python." 'hello.'

7 Variables (NAME = VALUE) are names we assign to chunks of memory Computer Memory we retrieve the values by calling its name 42 student_id = 42 print( student_id ) = is the assignment operator, assigns a data value to a variable

8 Variables Syntax Rules Variable names must begin with a letter (uppercase or lowercase) or underscore (_) * good programming convention: variables should not start with uppercase letters, commonly used for something else remainder of name can contain letters, (_), and numbers names may not contain spaces or special characters names are case sensitive and must not be a reserved python keyword myvariable and myvariable refer to different data

9 x y Statements and Expressions Statements perform a task; do not return a value = 2 = 3 print(y) Expressions return a value x + y 6

10 Expressions (evaluate to values) Math expressions 10 * * ( ) 50.0 Operator Precedence (PEMDAS) Parentheses Exponentiation Multiplication and Division Addition and Subtraction

11 Expressions (evaluate to values) Boolean expressions 10 < 2 False 10 >= 10 True Combined with Logical Operators (10 < 2) and (10 == 10) False

12 (a*c Expressions (evaluate to values) Can combine + d) > (d*a - c) String expressions "Hel" + "lo" 'Hello' "Hi"*3 'HiHiHi' Later lectures will reveal more about this

13 Operator Precedence (top-to-bottom) Operator Description ( ) Parenthesis (grouping) ** Exponentiation +x, -x Positive, Negative *, /, % Multiplication, Division, Remainder +, - Addition, Subtraction <, <=, >, >=,!=, == Comparisons not x Boolean NOT and Boolean AND or Boolean OR

14 <type <type Data Types Finding out a data type x = 2.0 print(type(x)) 'float'> print(type( hi )) 'str'>

15 <type <type TypeError: Data Types What if data types don t match? x = 2 y = x # add an int and float print(type(x)) 'int'> print(type(y)) 'float'> STRONG TYPES no automatic conversion (for non number types) x = "str" + 2 cannot concatenate 'str' and 'int' objects

16 Data Types Explicit conversion x = "5" y = 5 x + str(y) # str() converts to str '55' int(x) + y # int() converts to int 10 float(x) + y # converts to float 10.0

17 Python Keywords, User Input

18 Keywords RESERVED: do not use as variable names and as assert break class continue def del elif else except exec finally for from global if import in is lambda not or pass print raise return try while with yield

19 Give User Input Create interactive programs by requesting user input x = input( Give me a number: ) me a number: 34.5 print(x) User Input '34.5' float(x) String 34.5

20 Control Structures

21 Branching / Conditional Statements Decision Making is front of robot clear? False True Stop() Move()

22 if if DO if - statement if syntax front_is_clear(): move() TEST: THIS

23 if if print(x, print(x, if DO DO if - else front_is_clear(): move() else: turn_off() if - else syntax x % 2 == 0: else: "is even") TEST: THIS else: SOMETHING ELSE "is odd")

24 choice if elif elif print("invalid if - elif - else If one test fails, perform next test = input( make a choice (a, b, or c): ) choice == 'a': function_a() choice == 'b': function_b() choice == 'c': function_c() else: choice.")

25 if print(x, if print(x, print(x, Nested if statements x == y: "and", y, "are equal") else: else: x < y: "is less than", y) "is greater than", y)

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