# Introduction to Bioinformatics

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1 Introduction to Bioinformatics Variables, Data Types, Data Structures, Control Structures Janyl Jumadinova February 3, 2016

2 Data Type Data types are the basic unit of information storage. Instances of data types are unique (in Python). 2/19

3 Data Type Data types are the basic unit of information storage. Instances of data types are unique (in Python). Data stored in memory is a string of bits (0 or 1). 2/19

4 Data Type Data types are the basic unit of information storage. Instances of data types are unique (in Python). Data stored in memory is a string of bits (0 or 1). How the computer interprets the string of bits depends on the context. In Python, we don t need explicit declaration by specifying the type of the data. 2/19

5 Python Data Type These are the most basic (and most frequently used) data types: Integer: 0, 7, 13, 21, -1 Floating point: 3.14, 2.718, String: 1, 2.718, True, None, My name is Boolean: True, False Null: None 3/19

6 Variables Variable is a name for a memory s location where a data value is stored. Variable Assignment assigns a value to the variable count = 0 Expression is a combination of one or more operators (+,, %,...) and operands (literals, constants, variables,...) 4/19

7 Input We can get data directly from the user and create an interactive program. person = raw_input( Enter your name: ) print Hello, person # age is a variable of type string age = raw_input( What is your age? ) age = int(age) # age is a variable of type int now age = age + 2 print "In two years you will be ", age, " years old." 5/19

8 Input We can get data directly from the user and create an interactive program. person = raw_input( Enter your name: ) print Hello, person # age is a variable of type string age = raw_input( What is your age? ) age = int(age) # age is a variable of type int now age = age + 2 print "In two years you will be ", age, " years old." print "In four years you will be ", age+2, " years old." 5/19

9 Input raw input() always returns a string; input() evaluates the return, so it may return a number, for example - run the following example input1= input( Enter a number: ) print type(input1), input1 input2= raw_input( Enter a number: ) print type(input2), input2 6/19

10 Strings in Python are created with paired single or double quotes. Strings Multi-line strings can be created by enclosing them with three single or double quotes on each end (e.g. This could span several lines ). 7/19

11 Strings in Python are created with paired single or double quotes. Strings Multi-line strings can be created by enclosing them with three single or double quotes on each end (e.g. This could span several lines ). The + and * operators work for strings, so help + me produces the string help me, and help * 3 produces helphelphelp. 7/19

12 Strings in Python are created with paired single or double quotes. Strings Multi-line strings can be created by enclosing them with three single or double quotes on each end (e.g. This could span several lines ). The + and * operators work for strings, so help + me produces the string help me, and help * 3 produces helphelphelp. String indexing: word = apple word[4] will give a letter e word[0:2] will give ap 7/19

13 Python Data Structures List: an ordered, zero-indexed collection of objects. For example: [1, A, 3.0] Set: an unordered collection of elements, guarantees each element is unique. For example: {1, 5, 3.0} Dictionary: an unordered collection of key/value pairs. Each key is unique. For example: {1: One, A :5, 3.0: Three } 8/19

14 Python Ordered Types 9/19

15 Python Unordered Types 10/19

16 Python basic language structure Newline terminates a command - no semicolon required. Indentation alone designates nested code blocks - no curly braces required. Functions, nested loops and conditionally evaluated code are all indicated using indentation. # denotes the start of a single line comment. 11/19

17 Basic numerical operations The +, -, *, /, % (modulo) and ** (power) all behave as expected. The = assigns the value on the right to the variable on the left. The +=, -=, *=, /= and **= perform the indicated operation between the variable on the left and the value on the right, then assign the result to the variable on the left. 12/19

18 Basic condition tests A == tests to see if two things have the same value.!= tests to see if two things have a different value. The <, >, <=, >= all compare relative values. An is tests to see if two things have the same identity. An in tests element membership in a collection. 13/19

19 Boolean algebra in Python Any value, other than None, False, 0,, or an empty collection evaluates to True in a boolean context. The boolean operators supported by python, in order of increasing precedence, are: and or not 14/19

20 Algorithms Any problem can be solved by an algorithm. Algorithm is a procedure for solving a problem in terms of the actions to be executed and the order in which those actions are to be executed. 15/19

21 Algorithms Any problem can be solved by an algorithm. Algorithm is a procedure for solving a problem in terms of the actions to be executed and the order in which those actions are to be executed. Both the actions and their order are important. 15/19

22 Three Groups of Control Structures 1. Sequential Structure - It is just built into the language itself. Control Structures 16/19

23 1. Sequential Structure 2. Selection Structures - if : single selection - if/elif/else : double or multiple selection Control Structures 17/19

24 Control Structures 1. Sequential Structure 2. Selection Structures 3. Repetition Structure while for 18/19

25 Control Structures Python programs are built from these control structures: if, while, for You implement computer algorithms by stringing sequences of these control structures together. 19/19

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