# COMP322 - Introduction to C++ Lecture 02 - Basics of C++

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1 COMP322 - Introduction to C++ Lecture 02 - Basics of C++ School of Computer Science 16 January 2012

2 C++ basics - Arithmetic operators Where possible, C++ will automatically convert among the basic types. + // Addition - // Subtraction * // Multiplication / // Division % // Integer remainder Another important operator is the assignment operator: = // Assignment

3 C++ basics - Comparison operators The result of a comparison operator is always a value of type bool : == // equal!= // not equal > // greater than < // less than >= // greater than or equal <= // less than or equal

4 C++ basics - Logical operators The logical && and operators use short-circuit evaluation. They execute the right hand argument only if necessary to determine the overall value. && // logical and // logical or! // logical negation

5 C++ basics - Bitwise operators These operators support logical operations on bits. For example, int x = 0 x1001 ^ 0 x2001 ; std :: cout << std :: hex << x << std :: endl ; would print & // bitwise and // bitwise or ^ // bitwise exclusive or ~ // bitwise complement << // left shift >> // right shift

6 C++ basics - if statement // Simplest form if ( response == y ) return true ; // Less simple if ( result > 0.0) { x = 1.0 / result ; y += x; else { std :: cout << " Division by zero!";

7 C++ basics - switch statement int response ; std :: cin >> response ; // Get input switch ( response ) { case y : return true ; case n : return false ; case q : exit (0); default : std :: cout << "I didn t get that, sorry \n"; break ; In C++the switch statement will keep going until it hits a break statement, meaning more than one case can be executed.

8 C++ basics - while statement float array [10]; int i; i = 0; while (i < 10) { array [ i] = 0; i ++; Notice one difference between this array declaration and Java: No use of the new operator. When you create an array in C or C++you are essentially just creating continuous variables. (Unlike in Java, there is no notion that this is now a reference type) Like in C, you should not assume an array values are initialized to anything!

9 C++ basics - for statement Typically a shorthand for common forms of the while statement. float array [10]; for ( int i = 0; i < 10; i ++) { array [ i] = 0;

10 C++ basics - do while statement int response ; do { std :: cin >> response ; processcommand ( response ) while ( response!= q );

11 C++ basics - Identifier scope int v = 1; // Global scope int main () { int c = 5; // Local scope // Declare i in statement scope for ( int i = 0; i < c; i ++) { // do something // i is now undefined c = c + v;

12 C++ basics - Functions /* Calculate the mean of an array */ double mean ( double data [], int n) { double sum = 0.0; // Initialization if ( n!= 0) return 0.0; for ( int i = 0; i < n; i ++) sum += data [i]; return sum / n; /* Impractical recursive factorial */ long factorial ( long t) { if ( t <= 1) return 1; return t * factorial ( t - 1);

13 C++ basics - Function orders In C++, you may not CALL a function before it is defined, unless you have put a prior function header. For example: double bar ( int x); // without this, it would not compile! double foo () { bar (3); double bar ( int x) {...

14 Preprocessor The C++ preprocessor is inherited from C. It runs before the compiler, processing its directives and outputting a modified version of the input. #define #ifdef #if #else #line #error #include #ifndef #elif #endif #undef #pragma

15 Preprocessor - #define The #define directive is used to define textual substitution or macro. It is often used to create constants: # define PI # define HASHTABLESIZE 100 # define MYNAME " fred " By convention, capital letters are often used. The construct can be used for more elaborate statements that may accept arguments: # define MAX (a,b) ((a < b)? (b) : (a)) # define SWAP (a,b, type ) { type tmp = a; \ a = b; \ b = tmp ;

16 Preprocessor - #include The #include directive is used to incorporate another file into the current file: # include <iostream > # include <sys / stat.h> # include " myhdr.h" By convention, header filenames often end in.h. However, this is purely optional. If the filename is enclosed in quotes, the preprocessor searches the local directory, then a list of standard directories. If the filename is enclosed in <>, the preprocessor searches only the standard directories.

17 Preprocessor - #if/#ifdef The #if, #ifdef and #ifndef directives support conditional compilation: # ifndef PI # define PI # endif #if ( VERSION >= 2) // code for version 2 and later # elif ( VERSION >= 1) // code for version 1 # else // default code # endif

18 Preprocessor - #if/#ifdef The defined operator can replace #ifdef and #ifndef: # if! defined PI && defined USEMATH # define PI # endif These constructs can nest: # if! defined _MYHDR_H # define _MYHDR_H 1 # if OSTYPE == LINUX # define USETHREADS 1 # else # define USETHREADS 0 # endif // OSTYPE # endif // _MYHDR_H not defined

19 Preprocessor - everything else #undef deletes a macro. # undef PI #line overrides the line number and filename. It is primarily used internally by the compiler. # line 1020 " myfile. cpp " #error aborts the compilation and prints a message: # ifndef BLEH # error You must define BLEH # endif #pragma is a used to implement compiler-specific commands.

20 A few interesting operators sizeof expr - returns the size, in bytes, of the expression or named type. expr 1,expr 2 - the comma operator evaluates both expressions sides, returning the value of expr 2. expr 1?expr 2 :expr 3 - If expr 1 is non-zero (true), the value expr 2. Otherwise, the value is expr 3. x = (y > 0)? (100 / y) : 0; Assignment - assignments return the assigned value, so we can have odd expressions like: x = (y = 2) * 4;

21 Symbol declarations and definitions We already discussed the builtin types. Certain keywords can modify the treatments of objects or functions we declare: auto - internal reference in temporary storage volatile - the value may changed unexpectedly register - the value is used often const - a constant value extern - external reference static - internal reference in permanent storage Of these, only extern and static apply to function symbols.

22 auto, volatile, and register The auto keyword specifies automatic temporary storage, and is implicit. Within a function, auto float n; is equivalent to: float n; The volatile keyword warns the compiler that the value may change unexpectedly, as in a memory-mapped device: volatile int semaphore ; The register keyword informs the compiler that you will use the value often. Compilers may ignore this. register int i; // Loop counter, e. g.

23 The const keyword Any data object can be specified as const. This means you cannot modify it after initialization. const float pi = ; // Global constant double circle_area ( const double radius ) { pi = 0; // Illegal radius = 0; // Likewise return ( pi * radius * radius ); A const variable must be initialized. const float pi; // Illegal

24 The extern keyword The extern keyword declares an function or object which is defined later in the file, or in another file. // Use constant c and make it // globally visible : extern const double c; // No initializer! double energy ( double mass ) { // Use pow () locally extern double pow ( double, double ); return mass * pow (c, 2); // c is still visible, but pow () is not.

25 The static keyword Outside a function, static makes a local variable: static int _hidden = 12; int _visible = 0; hidden is local, whereas visible is global. In a function, static reserves permanent space for a variable: static void example () { static int initialized = 0; if (! initialized ) { initialized = 1; // Perform initialization // Perform normal function

26 Defining and declaring arrays Arrays are defined by specifying constant array bounds after the variable name. Arrays which are either global or static are implicitly initialized to zero. Automatic arrays are not implicitly initialized. # define N_ITEMS 10 static float vector [ N_ITEMS ]; const int n_rows = 10; const int n_cols = 12; double array [ n_rows ][ n_cols ]; If an array is initialized explicitly, or is external, the bounds need not be specified: const char message [] = " Hello, World!"; int table [] = {1,4,9,16,25; extern float vector []; // Unknown size!

27 Using arrays Array indices in C++ always begin at zero. The last index is therefore one less than the declared size of that dimension. const int n_items = 10; float psqr [ n_items ]; int i; for ( i = 0; i < n_items ; i ++) { psqr [i] = (i + 1)*( i + 1); This loop accesses elements 0 through 9, which is correct.

28 Function definitions /* Calculate the mean of an array */ double mean ( const double data [], int n) // Length of data { double sum = 0.0; // Initialization if ( n!= 0) return 0.0; for ( int i = 0; i < n; i ++) sum += data [i]; return ( sum / n); /* Impractical recursive factorial */ long factorial ( long t) { if ( t <= 1) return 1; return t * factorial ( t - 1);

29 More about functions Function definitions do not nest. A function may return a value or void. A function definition specifies the parameters passed by the caller. A function may contain local variable definitions. The variable declarations are followed by a series of statements. Once a function is declared, it can be called: y = sin (PI * x); printf ("%f", y);

30 Inline functions The overhead of calling a function can be significant. Using the inline keyword requests that the compiler expand small functions, as by macro substitution, rather than through an explicit procedure call: inline double circlearea ( double radius ) { return PI * radius * radius ; Like the register keyword, the compiler is free to act on this or not.

31 Default parameter passing For simple types (not arrays), parameters are passed by value. # include <iostream > void swap ( int a, int b) { int tmp = a; a = b; b = tmp ; int main () { int x = 2, y = 3; swap (x,y); std :: cout << " x=" << x << ", y=" << y << std : endl ; What does this program print?

32 User-defined types C++ inherits three simple ways to create complex types. An enum defines a type with named symbolic values. A struct defines a type which consists of one or more fields of possibly distinct subtypes. All fields coexist simultaneously in the type. A union defines a type which consists of one or more aliases for the same storage.

33 Enumerated types An enum associates a name with an integral value. enum color { red, blue, yellow, green ; enum color dot = red ; Implicit enum values begin at zero and increment for each item on the list. So in the above example, green would have integral value 3. This behavior can be overridden: enum lettergrades { A=4, B=3, C=2, D=1 ; If an explicit value is not given, implicit numbering begins at the last value given: enum color { red =1, blue, yellow, green ; Now green would have the value 4.

34 The struct A C++ struct contains a list of objects, like a database record. struct symbol { enum symtype s_type ; char s_name [32]; int s_value ; ; struct symbol sym ; struct symbol symtable [26]; We can then access the elements using the. operator: sym. s_value = 10; strcpy ( sym. s_name, "x");

35 The union A union definition looks like a struct definition, but the items all share the same storage: union symvalue { float sv_flt ; int sv_int ; char sv_str [32]; ; We can store either sv flt, sv int, or sv str, but only one at a time: float x; int n; union symvalue val ; val. sv_int = 10; n = val. sv_int ; // This is OK! x = val. sv_flt ; // This may be bad!

36 Typedef statements A type can be associated with a given symbolic name using the typedef statement: typedef unsigned short word ; // word is now a synonym for unsigned short word array [100]; typedef float rgb [3]; /* rgb is now a synonym for an array with three * floating point elements */ rgb pixel ; pixel [0] = 1.0; pixel [1] = pixel [2] = 0.5;

37 Using namespaces A namespace supports grouping of a set of functions or objects. For example, most of the standard library is associated with the namespace std : # include <iostream > int main () { std :: cout << " Hello!" << std :: endl ; The scope resolution operator :: tells C++ we want to use the cout associated with the namespace std. We can simplify our code with the using statement: # include <iostream > using namespace std ; int main () { cout << " Hello!" << endl ;

38 Using namespaces We can be more specific about using only those things we actually need: # include <iostream > using std :: cout ; using std :: endl ; int main () { cout << " Hello, world!" << std :: endl ; return 0; // Return code for success Even if we explicitly import a symbol from a namespace, we can still use the fully-qualified form of the name.

39 Defining namespaces namespace A { int factorial ( int x) { return (x <= 1)? 1 : (x * factorial (x - 1)); namespace B { int factorial ( int x) { int y = 1; for ( int i = 1; i < x; i ++) y *= x; return y; int main () { cout << A:: factorial (5) << endl ; cout << B:: factorial (5) << endl ; using namespace A; cout << factorial (5) << endl ;

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