# ME240 Computation for Mechanical Engineering. Lecture 4. C++ Data Types

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1 ME240 Computation for Mechanical Engineering Lecture 4 C++ Data Types

2 Introduction In this lecture we will learn some fundamental elements of C++: Introduction Data Types Identifiers Variables Constants NOTE THAT The C and C++ programming languages are quite different from each other, even though they share some common syntax.

3 Data Types A data type determines the type of the data that will be stored, in the computer memory (RAM). C++ provides 6 fundamental data types: char int float double bool wchar_t There are also some qualifiers that can be put in front of the numerical data types to form derivatives: short, long, signed, unsigned For example: short int unsigned char

4 The table below shows the fundamental data types in C++, as well as the range of values. The red coloured int and double data types are all you needin basic level programming.

5 Notes: 1. The unqualified char, short, int, (long int) are signedby default. 2. You don t need to write intafter using shortand long keywords. i.e. short s; means short int s; long k; means long int k;

6 Identifiers An identifier is a string of alphanumeric characters. It is used for naming variables, constants, functions, structures and classes. A valid identifier must begin with a letter or underscore (_), can consist only of letters (a-z, A-Z), digits(0-9), and underscores. should not match with any C++ reserved keywords which are: asm, auto, bool, break, case, catch, char, class, const, const_cast, continue, default, delete, do, double, dynamic_cast, else, enum, explicit, export, extern, false, float, for, friend, goto, if, inline, int, long, mutable, namespace, new, operator, private, protected, public, register, reinterpret_cast, return, short, signed, sizeof, static, static_cast, struct, switch, template, this, throw, true, try, typedef, typeid, typename, union, unsigned, using, virtual, void, volatile, wchar_t, while

7 According to these rules, the following are valid identifiers: mass peynir pos12 speed_of_light SpeedOfLight isprime while the following are not valid: 2ndBit speed of light yağmur c++ float Remember to use only the English alphabet: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Note that C++ is case sensitive. That is, it distinguishes between uppercase and lowercase letters. So, Food and food are different identifiers.

8 Variables A variable is a symbolic name given to a value and is associated with a data storage location in the computer s memory. A variable s name has to be a valid identifier. A variable must be declared before it is used. When declaring a variable, you must tell the compiler what kindof variable it is; int, char, double, A variable has a limited scope within a program section where it is visible and accessible.

9 Example declarations int i, j; long k; float w, x, y, z; double speed, dragforce; When a variable is declared, you can initializeit in two alternative but equivalent ways or int cake = 122; int cake(122);

10 Example Program: Declaration and manipulation of variables #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { short x = 22, y = 11, z; z = x y; cout << "z = " << z << endl; int p = 3; int q = x*y*z - 2*p; cout << "q = " << q << endl; return 0; } Output: z = 11 q = 2656

11 Example Program: The scope of variables #include <iostream> using namespace std; int k = 11; int main () { this k is global (visible throughout the whole program including in any other functions defined in the program) int k = 22; this k is local in the main() function block { int k = 33; this k is local inside this block cout << "Inside internal block: k = " << k << endl; } cout << "Inside main(): k = " << k << endl; cout << "Global k = " << ::k << endl; } Output Inside internal block: k = 33 Inside main(): k = 22 Global k = 11

12 Constants To help promote safety, variables can be made constantwith the const qualifier. Since constvariables cannot be assigned during execution, they must be initialized at the point of declaration. const double pi = ; Here, pi is a type double variable storing the value (remember type double variables store floating values to about 15 digit precision). The constqualifier tells the compiler to not allow us to change the value of the variable during execution of the program. Symbolic constants are defined via the #define preprocessor directive. #define pi Here the preprocessor (before compilation) replaces any occurrences of pi with the literal constant But this can be dangerous!

13 Representation of Integer and Floating Point Numbers Integer literal constants can be represented by three different bases: base-10 (decimal), base-8 (octal) and base-16 (hexadecimal) i = 75; base-10 (default) i = 0113; base-8 representation of decimal 75 i = 0x4B; base-16 representation of decimal 75 i = 0x4b; is also base-16 Floating point literals express numbers with decimals and/or exponents. The symbol Eor eis used in the exponent. x = ; decimal floating-point number x = e-1; exponent (means x10-1 ) c = 1.6E-19; exponent (means 1.6x10-19 ) A = 6.02e23; exponent (means 6.02x10 23 )

14 SOME OF PRINTABLE ASCII CHARACTERS

15 char C++ represents character values as numeric codes A variable of data type char can store a single character To represent a character constant in a program, we enclose the character in single quotes (apostrophes): 'A' 'b' ' ' ';' Since characters are represented by integer codes, C++ permits conversion of type chartotype intandviceversa Forexample, youcouldusethefollowingfragmenttofindoutthecodeyour implementationusesfora questionmark: int qmarkcode= '?'; cout << "Code for? = " << qmarkcode << endl;

16 Strings One of the C++ standard libraries provides a data type string to represent a group of characters. Use of this data type requires inclusion of the preprocessor directive: #include <string> String variables and name constants are declared, initialized, input, and displayed in a manner comparable to numbers and characters Notice that you must use double quotes to enclose a string's value in a program, and you may include any of the special characters discussed earlier. For example: string a,b; a="sample 1"; b="sample 2"; cout<<"a="<<a<<endl; cout<<"b="<<b<<endl;

17 Escape codes There are additional character literals called escape codes or escape sequences whichare preceded by a backslash (\): Escape Code Description Example \a alert (beep) cout << "Error!\a"; \b backspace cout<<"gazia\b antep"; \r return to cout<<"gaziantep\rg"; column 1 \n newline cout <<'Gazi\nantep'; \t horizontal tab cout << x << '\t' << y; \' quote cout << "Gaziantep\' te "; \\ backslash cout << "Gaziantep\Sahinbey";

18 Boolean Literals C++ defines a data type named boolthat has only two possible values trueand false. This is the type of the conditional expressions, such as x > 100 and y < = 0, that we will study in selective structures structures. Sometimes a program uses a variable of type boolto keep track ofwhether a certain event has occurred. The variable will be initialized to false, and after the event occurs thevariable will be set to true. int main(){ bool a,b; a=true; b=1>2; cout<<"a="<<a<<endl; cout<<"b="<<b<<endl;

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