Graphics Programming

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1 Graphics Programming 3 rd Week, 2011 OpenGL API (1) API (application programming interface) Interface between an application program and a graphics system Application Program OpenGL API Graphics Library (API) Hardware Easy to learn, compared with other APIs Nevertheless powerful Graphics functions: black box Described by only its inputs and outputs Nothing known about its internal working User Program Function Calls Graphics Output t Data System Input Input Device Output Device Input/Output Devices

2 OpenGL interface OpenGL Application Program OpenGL API (2) GLU GL GLUT GLX Xlib, Xtk OpenGL core library (names : gl~) : GL OpenGL utility library : GLU Using only GL functions Creating common objects Other tasks that users prefer not to write repeatedly OpenGL utility toolkit : GLUT Interface with the window system Frame Buffer OpenGL API (3) OpenGL architecture Immediate Mode Geometry Pipeline Polynomial Evaluator Per Vertex Operations & Primitive Assembly CPU Display List Rasterization Per Fragment Operations Frame Buffer Pixel Operations Texture Memory

3 Graphics functions Primitives OpenGL API (4) Points, line segments, polygons Attributes Color, pattern Transformations Viewing Modeling Control (GLUT) Input (GLUT) Query OpenGL API (5) OpenGL function format Function name Dimensions glvertex3f( x, y, z ); Belongs to GL library x, y, z are floats p is a pointer to an array glvertex3fv( p );

4 Simple Program (1) To generate a square on a solid background #include <gl/glut.h> void mydisplay(){ glclear(gl_color_buffer_bit); glbegin(gl_polygon); glvertex2f(-0.5f, -0.5f); glvertex2f(-0.5f, 0.5f); glvertex2f(0.5f, 0.5f); glvertex2f(0.5f, -0.5f); glflush(); } int main(int argc, char** argv){ glutcreatewindow("simple"); glutdisplayfunc(mydisplay); glutmainloop(); } Creating a consol project and linking glut32.lib Simple Program (2) Same output but all the relevant state values are defined through function calls using the default values #include <gl/glut.h> int main(int argc, char** argv){ glutinit(&argc,argv); glutinitdisplaymode(glut_single GLUT_RGB); glutinitwindowsize(500,500); glutinitposition(0,0); glutcreatewindow("simple"); glutdisplayfunc(mydisplay); init(); glutmainloop(); } void init(){ it(){ glclearcolor(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0); glcolor3f(1.0, 1.0, 1.0); glmatrixmode(gl _ PROJECTION); glloadidentity(); glortho(-1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0); }

5 Coordinate System To specify vertex locations Object or modeling coordinates glvertex World coordinates Transformations Camera or viewing coordinates Viewing specification Window or screen coordinates Projection Viewport transformation Physical-device or device coordinates Rasterization OpenGL Camera OpenGL places a camera at the origin in world space pointing in the negative z direction Default viewing volume a box centered at the origin with a side of length 2 The default camera and an orthographic view volume

6 Orthographic Viewing Default orthographic view Projecting points forward along the z axis onto the plane z=0 z=0 z=0 View Volume Orthographic Projection Viewing (1) In OpenGL, viewing is carried out by projection matrix First, set the matrix mode first Two most important matrices: model-view and projection glmatrixmode(gl_projection GL_PROJECTION); Start with an identity matrix Multiplying or concatenating a number of transformation matrices glloadidentity(); Alter it with a projection matrix Two- and three-dimensional viewing glortho(-1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0);

7 Viewing (2) Three-dimensional viewing glortho(left, right, bottom, top, near, far); near, far: distances measured from the camera Two-dimensional viewing Application is in two dimension Placing all vertices in the plane z=0 gluortho2d(left, right, bottom, top); View or clipping volume == clipping window Objects before clipping Image after clipping Points Lines Line segments Polylines Polygons Polygons Primitives in OpenGL Triangles and quadrilaterals Strips and fans Text Curved objects

8 Points in OpenGL glbegin(gl_points); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); Line segments Lines in OpenGL (1) glbegin(gl_lines); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv();

9 Polylines line strip Lines in OpenGL (2) glbegin(gl_line_strip); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); Polylines line loop Lines in OpenGL (3) glbegin(gl_line_loop); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv();

10 Definition Polygons (1) Object that is closed as a line loop, but that has an interior Simple polygon No pair of edges of a polygon cross each other Simple Nonsimple Convexity Polygons (2) All points on the line segment between any two points inside the object, or on its boundary, are inside the object Convex Objects

11 Polygon Polygons in OpenGL (1) glbegin(gl_polygon); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); Quadrilaterals Polygons in OpenGL (2) glbegin(gl_quads); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv();

12 Quadstrip Polygons in OpenGL (3) glbegin(gl_quad_strip); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); Triangles Polygons in OpenGL (4) glbegin(gl_triangles); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv();

13 Triangle strip Polygons in OpenGL (5) glbegin(gl_triangle_strip); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); Triangle fan Polygons in OpenGL (6) glbegin(gl_triangle_fan); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv(); glvertex2fv();

14 Attributes Properties that determines how to render a geometric primitive (appearance of objects) Color (points, lines, polygons) Size and width (points, lines) Stipple pattern (lines, polygons) Polygon mode Display as filled: solid color or stipple pattern Display edges Display vertices Three color theory Color Our brains do not receive the entire color distribution but rather than three values Additive color ex) CRT Subtractive ti color ex) printing Blue Yellow M G C R Red Y Green Cyan B Magenta Additive Color Subtractive Color Color Solid

15 RGB Color Each color component is stored separately in the frame buffer Usually 8 bits per component in buffer glcolor3f: the values range from 0.0 (none) to 1.0 (all) glcolor3ub: the values range from 0 to 255 Indexed Color Colors are indices into tables of RGB values Indices usually 8 bits Require less memory for the frame buffer Not as important now Memory inexpensive Need more colors for shading

16 Setting of Color Attributes (1) Setting of the clear color glclearcolor(1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0); Opaque: opacity is 1.0 Window is cleared by white color Setting of the color state variable RGB color red color glcolor3f(1.0, 0.0, 0.0); Setting of the size of points 2 pixels wide: glpointsize(2.0); Setting of the width of lines 2 pixels width: gllinewidth(2.0); Setting of Color Attributes (2) Creating conceptual vertex colors glcolor3f(1.0, 0.0, 0.0); glvertex2f(0.5, 0.5); glcolor3f(0.0, 0.0, 1.0); glvertex2f(-0.5, -0.5); Default smooth shading Alternative flat shading Color of first vertex determines fill color glshademodel(gl_smooth); glshademodel(gl_flat);

17 Viewport Viewports A rectangular area of the display window Values in pixels glviewport(x, y, w, h); Aspect ratio of a rectangle The ratio of the rectangle s width to its height ht

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