# Computer Graphics. Si Lu. Fall uter_graphics.htm 11/22/2017

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1 Computer Graphics Si Lu Fall uter_graphics.htm 11/22/2017

2 Last time o Splines 2

3 Today o Raytracing o Final Exam: 14:00-15:30, Novermber 29, 2017 To-know list available 3

4 OpenGL Limitations o Stream processing of geometry No random access to geometric information Can t do any computation that requires all the geometry at once o Rasterization is limited We saw many ways to represent objects not all can be rasterized Cannot provide rasterizers for every form of geometry o Everything get rasterized and drawn Figuring out what you can see before rasterizing is possible but hard o Computation loops over geometry, then pixels for all objects { for all pixels in object } 4

5 Raytracing o Cast rays out from the eye, through each pixel, and determine what the rays hit Builds the image pixel by pixel, one at a time o Cast additional rays from the hit point to determine the pixel color o Rays test visibility what do I see from this point in this direction? Ray casting is widely used in graphics to test visibility 5

6 Raytracing Shadow rays Image Reflection ray Transmitted ray 6

7 Recursive Ray Tracing o When a reflected or refracted ray hits a surface, repeat the whole process from that point Send out more shadow rays Send out new reflected ray (if required) Send out a new refracted ray (if required) Generally, reduce the weight of each additional ray when computing the contributions to surface color Stop when the contribution from a ray is too small to notice o The result is a ray tree 7

8 Ray Tree B Eye A L1 L1 A L2 L2 C B C L1 L2 L1 L2 8

9 PCKTWTCH by Kevin Odhner, POV-Ray 9

10 Kettle, Mike Miller, POV- Ray 10

11 11

12 Raytracing Implementation o Raytracing breaks down into two tasks: Constructing the rays to cast Intersecting rays with geometry o The former problem is simple vector arithmetic o The intersection problem arises in many areas of computer graphics Collision detection Other rendering algorithms o Intersection is essentially root finding (as we will see) Any root finding technique can be applied 12

13 Constructing Rays o Define rays by an initial point and a direction o Eye rays: Rays from the eye through a pixel o Shadow rays: Rays from a point on a surface to a light If the ray hits something before it gets to the light, then the point is in shadow o Reflection rays: Rays from a point on a surface in the reflection direction Only for reflective surfaces o Transmitted rays: Rays from a point on a transparent surface through the surface Use Snell s law to get refraction direction 13

14 Eye Rays Image Eye (0,0,0) FOV/2 Find this point to get ray. Transform from view to world space. 14

15 Ray-Object Intersections o o o o Aim: Find the parameter value, t i, at which the ray first meets object i Transform the ray into the object s local coordinate system Makes ray-object intersections generic: ray-sphere, ray-plane, Write the surface of the object implicitly: f(x)=0 Unit sphere at the origin is x x-1=0 Plane with normal n passing through origin is: n x=0 Put the ray equation in for x Result is an equation of the form f(t)=0 where we want t Now it s just root finding 15

16 Ray-Sphere Intersection o Quadratic in t 2 solutions: Ray passes through sphere - take minimum value that is > 0 1 solution: Ray is tangent - use it if >0 0 solutions: Ray does not hit sphere : 0 1 Substitute : 0 1 Sphere : ) ( Ray : x x d x d d d x d x x x d x x t t t t t t 16

17 Ray-Plane Intersections o To do polygons, intersect with plane then do point-inpolygon test o Faster tests for triangles, but this is the start point d n x n x n d n d x n x n d x x : 0 : 0 Substitute : 0 Plane : ) ( Ray : t t t t t 17

18 Details o Must find first intersection of ray from the eye Find all candidate intersections, sort them and take soonest Techniques for avoiding testing all objects o Bounding boxes that are cheap to test o Octrees for organizing objects in space Take care to eliminate intersections behind the eye Same rules apply for reflection and transmission rays o Shadow ray just has to find any intersection shadowing the light source Speedup: Keep a cache of shadowing objects - test those first 18

19 Mapping Techniques o All raytracing calculations are done for every pixel o Raytracing provides a wealth of information about the visible surface point: Position, normal, texture coordinates, illuminants, color o Raytracing also has great flexibility Every point is computed independently, so effects can easily be applied on a per-pixel basis Reflection and transmission and shadow rays can be manipulated for various effects Even the intersection point can be modified 19

20 Bump Mapping Examples 20

21 Soft Shadows o Light sources that extend over an area (area light sources) should cast soft-edged shadows Some points see all the light - fully illuminated Some points see none of the light source - the umbra Some points see part of the light source - the penumbra o To ray-trace area light sources, cast multiple shadow rays Each one to a different point on the light source Weigh illumination by the number that get through 21

22 Soft Shadows Penumbra Umbra Penumbra 22

24 Ray-Tracing and Sampling o Basic ray-tracing casts one ray through each pixel, sends one ray for each reflection, one ray for each point light, etc o This represents a single sample for each point, and for an animation, a single sample for each frame o Many important effects require more samples: Motion blur: A photograph of a moving object smears the object across the film (longer exposure, more motion blur) Depth of Field: Objects not located at the focal distance appear blurred when viewed through a real lens system Rough reflections: Reflections in a rough surface appear blurred 24

25 Distribution Raytracing o Distribution raytracing casts more than one ray for each sample Originally called distributed raytracing, but the name s confusing o How would you sample to get motion blur? o How would you sample to get rough reflections? o How would you sample to get depth of field? 25

26 Distribution Raytracing o Multiple rays for each pixel, distributed in time, gives you motion blur Object positions have to vary continuously over time o Casting multiple reflection rays at a reflective surface and averaging the results gives you rough, blurry reflections o Simulating multiple paths through the camera lens system gives you depth of field 26

27 Motion Blur 27

28 Depth of Field 28

29 Distribution Raytracing Depth of Field From Alan Watt, 3D Computer Graphics 29

30 Next Time o Animation 30

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### Ray Tracing. Cornell CS4620/5620 Fall 2012 Lecture Kavita Bala 1 (with previous instructors James/Marschner)

CS4620/5620: Lecture 37 Ray Tracing 1 Announcements Review session Tuesday 7-9, Phillips 101 Posted notes on slerp and perspective-correct texturing Prelim on Thu in B17 at 7:30pm 2 Basic ray tracing Basic

Speeding up your game The scene graph Culling techniques Level-of-detail rendering (LODs) Collision detection Resources and pointers (adapted by Marc Levoy from a lecture by Tomas Möller, using material