# Types and Expressions. Chapter 3

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1 Types and Expressions Chapter 3

2 Chapter Contents 3.1 Introductory Example: Einstein's Equation 3.2 Primitive Types and Reference Types 3.3 Numeric Types and Expressions 3.4 Assignment Expressions 3.5 Java's boolean Type and Expressions 3.6 Java's Character-Related Types and Expressions 3.7. Graphical/Internet Java: Einstein's Calculator

3 Chapter Objectives Study another example of software development using OCD Review primitive vs. reference types View numeric types, operations, methods Study assignment, increment, decrement operators Examine boolean data type & operators Study character-related types Note internal representation of primitive types Study another example of GUI application & Applet

4 3.1 Example: Einstein's Equation Need a program to do calculations concerning amount of energy released by a quantity of matter for a mass given in a physics problem Object Centered Design Behavior Objects Operations Algorithm

5 Behavior Program should do the following Display prompt for quantity of matter (mass) Allow user to enter nonnegative real via keyboard Use entered value and Einstein's equation to do calculation for energy Display results with descriptive label

6 Objects Description of Object Type Kind Name screen Screen varying thescreen prompt String constant none qty of matter double varying mass keyboard Keyboard varying thekeyboard qty of energy double varying energy descriptive label String constant none

7 Operations Based on our behavioral description: Display a string (prompt) on screen Read non negative number (mass) from keyboard Compute energy from mass Equation needed: e = m * c 2 Display number (energy) & string on screen

8 Refinement of Objects Description of Object Type Kind Name screen Screen varying thescreen prompt String constant none qty of matter double varying mass keyboard Keyboard varying thekeyboard qty of energy double varying energy descriptive label String constant none c double constant SPEED_OF_LIGHT 2 int constant none

9 Algorithm 1. Ask thescreen to display prompt for mass to be converted into energy 2. Ask thekeyboard to read a number, store it in mass 3. Compute energy = mass * SPEED_OF_LIGHT 2 4. Ask thescreen to display energy and descriptive label

10 Coding, Execution, Testing Note source code, Figure 3.1 in text Note sample runs Check to see if all behaviors are accomplished Check for accuracy of calculations

11 3.2 Primitive and Reference Types Each data value has a type The type must be declared for all variables & constants The compiler needs this information to allocate memory for the variable or constant to verify that the variable/constant is being used correctly

12 Primitive Types Also known as simple types int, byte, short, and long for integer values float and double for real/fractional values char for letters, digits, symbols, punctuation boolean for true and false Literals: values of one of these types 'A', -7, 3.5, true

13 Reference Types Needed to represent windows, buttons, inventory, students, etc. objects more complicated than can be represented with simple types Create a class and you have created a new type whose name is the name of the class Types created from classes are called reference types

14 Java Provided Reference Types Over 1600 classes already available in Java Examples: String for constant sequences of characters StringBuffer for variable sequences of characters BigInteger for integers of unlimited size BigDecimal for fractional numbers of unlimited size

15 Creating Reference Type Values: Constructors Primitive types use literals for their values Meanings of literals built into compiler Reference types have no pre-existent values Values must be created with the new operator Example: Integer integervalue = new Integer(321); Type identifier name call to initializing constructor

16 Default Value: null Default value for reference Screen thescreen = null; Screen thescreen; //or value used if none is specified in declaration indicates variable does not yet refer to a value of that type can later be assigned values created with new

17 Constructing an Object Use of new to create a reference type Class provides one or more methods called constructors Syntax: new ClassName( arguments, ) ClassName is name of a reference type arguments is a sequence of values separated by commas types of arguments match those permitted by ClassName

18 3.3 Numeric Types and Expressions Types for real or fractional numbers float: use 32 bits (4 bytes) double: use 64 bits (8 bytes) Types used for integers byte: uses 8 bits short: uses 16 bits (2 bytes) int: uses 32 bits long: uses 64 bits char: uses 16 bits (can be either numeric or represent Unicode characters)

19 Other Numeric Types Wrapper classes for the primitive types BigInteger and BigDecimal for processing larger values found in java.math package Although many possible numeric types are provided, int and double are the most often used

20 Numeric Literals Positive and negative whole numbers treated by default as type int Appending the letter L to a literal tells compiler to treat it as a long 678L -45L 0L Note use of uppercase L to avoid confusion of l with 1 Also possible to specify octal or hexadecimal precede the literal with 0 or 0x, respectively

21 Real Literals Fixed point representation Form is m.n m is the integer part, n is decimal part either m or n must be present with the decimal point Floating point representation Form is xen or xen 4.5E6 or 6e-12 x is an integer or fixed point real, n is an integer exponent (+ or -)

22 Default Values for Real Literals By default, real literals are considered to be of type double If value computed using real literals and assigned to a float variable, compiler generates an error float not large enough to hold 64 bit computed value Appending an F to a real literal tells compiler to treat it as a float F 4E6F

23 Numeric Expressions Primitive Expression sequence of one or more operands (values) combined with zero or more operators result is a value the type of the value produced is the type of the expression (int, double, etc.) Example 2 + x * (3 + y)

24 Numeric Operators Add Subtract Multiply Divide Mod + - * / % Operands may be of any primitive or real type Watch out! 3/4 is integer division, the result is integer NOT the same as 3.0/4 which is real division and gives a real result

25 Bitwise Operators Applied to integer data at bit level Operator Operation Example ~ invert ~x & and x & y or x y ^ xor x ^ y Truth table Operator Operation Example << left shift x << y >> right shift x >> y

26 Operator Precedence and Associativity One expression may have several different operators compiler will perform some before others Numeric operator precedence is pretty much same as learned in math classes * and / and % first, left to right + and - next, left to right inside parentheses first Associativity Check precedence chart for other operators

27 Unary Operators Parentheses The + and - operators can be applied to a single operand - 5 * Parentheses can be used to supersede the order of operations force a lower precedence operations to happen first 3 * (6 + 5)

28 Instance Methods Think of sending a message to an object same as invoking a method Example: double mass = thekeyboard.readdouble() thekeyboard is the object readdouble() is the method We send the message to the object of which method to execute

29 Static or Class Method Example: method to square SPEED_OF_LIGHT energy = mass * Math.pow( SPEED_OF_LIGHT, 2.0 ); pow( ) is the method Math is the class We are sending a message to a class The keyword static is used inside the class definition thus we need not declare a Math object to which a message is sent

30 The Math Class Contains static constants PI = E = Contains static Methods (examples) abs(x) pow(x,y) sqrt(x) exp(x) log(x)

31 Wrapper Classes Primitive types do not provide all operations required Wrapper classes (similar to primitive types) contain additional capabilities Byte Short Integer Long Float Double Boolean Character Each of these extends the capabilities of the corresponding primitive type wrapping it with useful constants and methods

32 Integer Wrapper Class Constants Integer.MAX_VALUE Integer.MIN_VALUE Methods int int_val; String digits; int_val = Integer.parsInt(digits); digits = Integer.toString( int_val); convert between String and int Note Table 3.4 for additional Integer methods.

33 BigInteger and BigDecimal Classes When values are too big for int, long, or double BigInteger and BigDecimal types are reference types values must be constructed using new and the constructor methods Examples: BigDecimal has a constructor to create a value from a double and another to create one from a string BigDecimal bd_value = new BigDecimal("12.345"); Note Table 3.5 for BigInteger methods

34 Implicit Type Conversion Promotion When types are mixed in an expression (say int and double) The smaller (lesser) type is widened to temporarily be the larger type byte short int long float double char The compatibility is one way only

35 Explicit Type Conversion Use Method Within Wrapper Class Wrapper classes provide type-conversion Example round a double value to an int Double roundeddoubleval = new Double(doubleVal+0.5); int intval = roundeddoubleval.intvalue(); Wrapper class has no static method to do this must create a Double value, use intvalue() method

36 Explicit Type Conversion Casting Use the name of the type to cast the desired type value int intvalue = (int)(doubleval+0.5); Fractional part of doubleval is truncated Syntax: (type) expression

37 3.4 Assignment Expressions Assignment expression uses assignment operator = to change the value of a variable Syntax variable = expression variable is a valid Java identifier, declared as a variable expression whose type is compatible with the variable

38 Assignment Example double xvalue, yvalue; xvalue 0.0 yvalue 0.0 Initial value for each variable is 0.0 (null)

39 Assignment Example double xvalue, yvalue; xvalue = 25.00; xvalue 25.0 yvalue 0.0

40 Assignment Example double xvalue, yvalue; xvalue = 25.00; yvalue = Math.sqrt(xValue); xvalue 25.0 yvalue 5.0

41 Assignment Example double xvalue, yvalue; xvalue = 25.00; yvalue = Math.sqrt(xValue); xvalue = 16.00; xvalue 16.0 yvalue 5.0 Note: value of yvalue does not change

42 Assignment Example double xvalue, yvalue; xvalue = 25.00; yvalue = Math.sqrt(xValue); xvalue = 16.00; double hold = xvalue; xvalue 16.0 yvalue 5.0 hold 16.0

43 Assignment Example double xvalue, yvalue; xvalue = 25.00; yvalue = Math.sqrt(xValue); xvalue = 16.00; double hold = xvalue; xvalue = yvalue; xvalue 5.0 yvalue 5.0 hold 16.0

44 Assignment Example double xvalue, yvalue; xvalue = 25.00; yvalue = Math.sqrt(xValue); xvalue = 16.00; double hold = xvalue; xvalue = yvalue; yvalue = hold; xvalue 5.0 yvalue 16.0 hold 16.0 We swapped the values for xvalue and yvalue why did we need hold?

45 Assignment as an Operation Three actions take place when variable = expression; takes place: expression is evaluated, producing a value the value of variable is changed to that value the operator = produces the value Think of operators producing values produces the value of 8 An additional by product of the assignment operator is that it stores a value in the variable

46 Chaining Assignment Operators We have just stated that = is a value producing operator Thus x = y = 3.4; is equivalent to two statements y = 3.4; x = y;

47 Increment and Decrement Operations Consider count = count + 1; Note that as an algebra equation it has no solution However, it is an assignment statement The expression is evaluated The resulting value is stored in count Java also provides a unary increment operator to accomplish the same thing counter++;

48 Increment and Decrement Operations The increment and decrement operators can be placed either before or after the variable If placed after it is called postfix use the variable, then increment (decrement) x = counter++; If placed before, it is called prefix increment (decrement) firs then use the result x = --counter;

49 Other Assignment Shortcuts Adding a value to an accumulating variable sum = sum + amount; Java provides the shortcut sum += amount; This can also be done with numeric operators -= *= /= %= as well as with the bitwise operators

50 3.5 Java's Boolean Type and Expressions Has two possible values literal values true and false boolean values produced by relational operators < > <= >= ==!= Warning for comparing for equality Do use = (single equal sign) An assignment results (and is evaluated)

51 Compound Boolean Expressions In mathematics we use relationships such as 0 < x < 7 This is actually two relationships and in Java we must state them so and combine them with the && (logical AND) (0 < x) && (x < 7) Similar compound relationships must be done with the logical OR

52 Short Circuit Evaluation Consider the logical or boolean expression p && q Both p and q must be true for the expression to be true if p evaluates as false, no need to check q This is called short circuit evaluation of a boolean expression Benefits can guard against the q expression causing a program crash (division by zero, square root of a negative, etc.) speeds up program performance

53 Operator Precedence Note the boolean expression x < 7 && y + 5 >= z We need to know which operators have priority Note table in text: Math operators have higher priority than Comparison operators which are higher than Logical AND and OR Inside parentheses forces higher precedence

54 3.6 Character-Related Types and Expressions Four character- related types char: primitive type for single characters Character: a class for single characters String: a class for constant sequences of characters StringBuffer: class for variable sequences of characters

55 The char Primitive Includes Type alphabetical characters - upper and lower case Variety of punctuation characters Numerals '0' through '9' Apostrophe (single quote) is used to delimit character literals 'a' 'Z' '?' Escape sequences '\'' '\n' '\t' See table 3.6 in text

56 char Expressions char objects can be defined and initialized char Y_or_N = 'N'; Characters are used in comparisons 'a' < 'b' ('A' <= letter) && (letter <= 'Z')

57 Character Reference Type Character wrapper class Example methods digit(chi,b) getnumericvalue(ch) isletter(ch) isuppercase(ch) See table 3.7 in text for more complete listing

58 String Reference Type String literals "" // empty string "345" "\n\tenter the value -> " Java distinctives for String and StringBuffer there is built in support for String literals String variables can be initialized in the same way as literals (use of new command not required) Support for the + operator on String values

59 String Operations Concatenation "Hi " + "Mom" results in "Hi Mom" use the plus + operator Access of individual characters within the string String name = "Snidly"; name.charat(3) results in 'd' Note String Static Methods, Table 3.8 in text S n i d l y \0

60 3.7 Graphical/Internet Java: Einstein's Equation Object-Centered Design : GUI Version Similar to that derived in Section 3.1 Here we use dialog widgets for I/O They require String objects must convert between String and double Program behavior Display input box with prompt User enters value (as a string) Program converts to number, computes energy Program builds a string to display results

61 Description of Object Objects Type Kind Name the program? input dialog? none dialog widget titles String constant TITLE prompt String constant none dialog box s text field none qty as a String String varying massstring qty of matter double varying mass qty of energy double varying energy descriptive label String constant none energy & label as String String varying energystring message dialog none OK and Cancel buttons none

62 Operations 1. Display an input box 2. Read a String (massstring) from the input box 3. Convert a String (massstring) to a double (mass) 4. Compute energy from mass 5. Convert a double (energy) to a String (energystring) 6. Display a message box showing energystring 7. Terminate the program when the user presses its OK button

63 Coding, Execution, Testing Note Figure 3.2 with source code of GUI Mass-to-energy conversion program Note sample run Note Applet version, Figure 3.3 Contrast to application (stand alone program) Applet can be loaded as part of web page, executed by a browser

64 Contrast Application with Applet Application Object class extended Class not declared public Has a main() static keyword used Applet JApplet class extended class declared to be public init() instead of main() init() not declared with static keyword Uses System.exit(1) Note Warning:

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