# Unit 3. Constants and Expressions

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 1 Unit 3 Constants and Expressions

2 2 Review C Integer Data Types Integer Types (signed by default unsigned with optional leading keyword) C Type Bytes Bits Signed Range Unsigned Range [unsigned] char 1 8 [unsigned] short 2 16 [unsigned] long [unsigned] int 4 32 [unsigned] long long to to to billion to +2 billion 0 to to 4 billion -8*10 18 to +8* to 16*10 18

3 3 Review Text Rep. Text characters are usually represented with some kind of binary code (mapping of character to a binary number such as 'a' = bin = 97 dec) ASCII = Traditionally an 8-bit code How many combinations (i.e. characters)? English only UNICODE = 16-bit code How many combinations? Most languages w/ an alphabet In C/C++ a single printing/text character must appear between single-quotes (') Example: 'a', '!', 'Z'

4 4 What About Rational/Real # s Previous binary system assumed binary point was fixed at the far right of the number (implied binary point) Consider scientific notation: Avogadro s Number: * Planck s Constant: * Can one representation scheme represent such a wide range? Yes! Floating Point Represents the sign, significant digits (fraction), exponent as separate bit fields Decimal: ±D.DDD * 10 ±exp Binary: ±b.bbbb * 2 ±exp Overall Sign of # S Exp. fraction

5 5 C Floating Point Types float and double types: C Type Bytes Bits Range float 4 32 ±7 significant digits * 10 +/-38 double 8 64 ±16 significant digits * 10 +/-308 Don't use floating-point when you don't need to Rounding error Some additional time overhead to perform arithmetic operations

6 C CONSTANTS & DATA TYPES 6

7 7 Integer: 496, 10005, -234 Constants Double: 12.0, -16., 0.23, -2.5E-1, 4e-2 Characters appear in single quotes 'a', '5', 'B', '!', '\n', '\t', '\\', '\'' Non-printing special characters use "escape" sequence (i.e. preceded by a \ ) '\n' = newline/enter, '\t' = tab C-Strings Multiple characters between double quotes "hi1\n", "12345\n", "b", "\tans. is %d" Ends with a '\0'=NULL character added as the last byte/character Boolean (C++ only): true, false Physical representation: 0 = false, (Non-zero) = true h i 1 \n Null c3 String Example (Memory Layout)

8 8 You're Just My Type Indicate which constants are matched with the correct type. Constant Type Right / Wrong 4.0 int 5 int 'a' "abc" string string 5. double 5 char "5.0" double '5' int

9 9 You're Just My Type Indicate which constants are matched with the correct type. Constant Type Right / Wrong 4.0 int double (.0) 5 int int 'a' string char "abc" string C-string 5. double float/double (. = non-integer) 5 char Int but if you store 5 in a char variable it'd be okay "5.0" double C-string '5' int char

10 EXPRESSIONS 10

11 11 Arithmetic Operators Addition, subtraction, multiplication work as expected for both integer and floating point types Modulus is only defined for integers Operator Operation + Addition - Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (Integer vs. Double division) % Modulus (remainder) [for integers only] 10 % 3 = 17 % 10 =

12 12 Precedence Order of operations/ evaluation of an expression Top Priority = highest (done first) Notice operations with the same level or precedence usually are evaluated left to right (explained at bottom) Evaluate: 2*-4-3+5%2; Tips: Use parenthesis to add clarity Add a space between literals (2 * -4) (5 % 2) January 2007 v2.2. Copyright c 2007 Joseph H. Silverman Permission is granted to make and distribute copies of this card provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Send comments and corrections to J.H. Silverman, Math. Dept., Brown Univ., Providence, RI USA.

13 13 Division Computers perform division differently based on the type of values used as inputs Integer Division: When dividing two integral values, the result will also be an integer (any remainder/fraction will be dropped) 10 / 4 = 2 52 / 10 = 5 6 / 7 = 0 Floating-point (Double) & Mixed Division 10.0 / 4.0 = / 10 = / 7.0 = Note: If one input is a double, the other will be promoted temporarily to compute the result as a double

14 14 Exercise Review Evaluate the following: 25 / / 4 * % / / 2.0 Exercises from: D.S. Malik, C++ Programming, 5 th Ed., Ch. 2, Q6.

15 15 Using 'cout' SIMPLE C++ OUTPUT

16 16 Output From Your Program We can use the computer as a simple calculator by writing expressions with constants To see the output in C++ we need to explicitly tell the computer to output the value using 'cout' So what happens to the result of 12*3 on the first line? Recall 'endl' stands for endline and causes the cursor to move to the next line of the screen // iostream allows access to 'cout' #include <iostream> using namespace std; // Execution always starts at the main() function int main() { 12 * 3; // No result printed cout << 12 * 3 << endl; // 36 printed return 0; }

17 17 Printing Different Values & Types 'cout' requires appropriate use of separators between consecutive values or different types of values 'cout' does not add spaces between consecutive values; you must do so explicitly Since text strings are a different value we must separate it with the '<<' operator Generally good practice to give some descriptive text with your numeric output Note: You may divide up output over multiple 'cout' statements. Unless an 'endl' or '\n' is used the next 'cout' statement will resume where the last one left off // iostream allows access to 'cout' #include <iostream> using namespace std; // Execution always starts at the main() function int main() { cout << 1 2 << endl; // Bad cout << 1 << 2 << endl; // Better cout << 1 << " " << 2 << endl; // Best return 0; } // iostream allows access to 'cout' #include <iostream> using namespace std; // Execution always starts at the main() function int main() { cout << "3 dozen is " << 3*12 << " items." << endl; } cout << "There are " << 60*24*365 << " minutes"; cout << " in a year." << endl; return 0; Output: 3 dozen is 36 items. There are minutes in a year.

18 18 The Need For Variables & Input Printing out constants is not very useful (nor exciting) In fact, we could just as easily compute the value ourselves in many situations The real power of computation comes when we introduce variables and user input Variables provide the ability to remember and name a value for use at a later time User input allows us to write general programs that work for "any" input values A more powerful program would allow us to enter an arbitrary number and perform conversion to dozens // iostream allows access to 'cout' #include <iostream> using namespace std; // Execution always starts at the main() function int main() { cout << "3 dozen is " << 3*12 << " items." << endl; } // the above results in the same output as below cout << "3 dozen is 36 items." << endl; return 0;

19 VARIABLES AND ASSIGNMENT 19

20 20 C/C++ Variables Variables allow us to Store a value until it is needed Associate a descriptive name with a value Variables are just memory locations that are reserved to store a piece of data of specific size and type Programmer indicates what variables they want when they write their code Difference: C requires declaring all variables at the beginning of a function before any operations. C++ relaxes this requirement. The computer will allocate memory for those variables when the code starts to run We can provide initial values via '=' or leave them uninitialized #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { char c; int x = ;... } char c; A single-byte variable int x = ; A four-byte variable Variables are declared in the C code Variables are actually allocated in RAM when the program is run

21 21 C/C++ Variables Variables have a: type [int, char, unsigned int,float, double, etc.] name/identifier that the programmer will use to reference the value in that memory location [e.g. x, myvariable, num_dozens, etc.] Identifiers must start with [A-Z, a-z, or an underscore _ ] and can then contain any alphanumeric character [0-9A-Za-z] (but no punctuation other than underscores) Use descriptive names(e.g. numstudents, doneflag) Avoid cryptic names ( myvar1, a_thing ) location [the address in memory where it is allocated] Value Reminder: You must declare a variable before using it What's in a name? To give descriptive names we often need to use more than 1 word/term. But we can't use spaces in our identifier names. Thus, most programmers use either camel-case or snake-case to write compound names Camel case: Capitalize the first letter of each word (with the possible exception of the first word) myvariable, ishighenough Snake case: Separate each word with an underscore '_' my_variable, is_high_enough Code int quantity = 4; double cost = 5.75; cout << quantity*cost << endl; quantity 4 cost

22 22 Know Your Variable Types Variables are declared by listing their type and providing a name They can be given an initial value using the '=' operator // iostream allows access to 'cout' #include <iostream> using namespace std; // Execution always starts at the main() function int main() { int w = -400; double x = 3.7; char y = 'a'; bool z = false; cout << w << " " << x << " "; cout << y << " " << z << endl; return 0; } C Type Usage Bytes Bits Range char Text character Small integral value 1 8 ASCII characters -128 to +127 bool True/False value 1 8 true / false int unsigned int Integer values billion to +2 billion 0 to +4 billion double Rational/real values 8 64 ±16 significant digits * 10 +/-308

23 23 Assignment (=) Operator To place a value into a variable we use the assignment operator (=) Syntax: variable = expression; (Left-Side) (Right-side) Semantics: Place the resulting value of 'expression' in the memory location associated with 'variable' Does not mean "compare for equality" (e.g. is w equal to 300?) That is performed by the == operator // iostream allows access to 'cout' #include <iostream> using namespace std; // Execution always starts at the main() function int main() { int w; // variables don't have to char x; // be initialized when declared } w = 300; x = 'a'; cout << w << " " << x << endl; w = -75; x = '!'; cout << w << " " << x << endl; return 0; Order of evaluation: right to left variable = expression; Assignment is one of the most common operations in programs

24 24 Assignment & Expressions Variables can be used in expressions and be operands for arithmetic and logic See inset below on how to interpret a variable's usage based on which side of the assignment operator it is used // iostream allows access to 'cout' #include <iostream> using namespace std; // Execution always starts at the main() function int main() { int dozens = 3; double gpa = 2.0; } int num = 12 * dozens; gpa = (2 * 4.0) + (4 * 3.7); gpa = gpa / 6; // integer or double division? cout << dozens << " dozen is " << num << " items." << endl; cout << "Your gpa is " << gpa << endl; return 0; Order of evaluation: right to left new-value of x (3) int x = 0; x = x + 3; current-value of x (0) Semantics of variable usage: Right-side of assignment: Substitute/use the current value stored in the variable Left-side of assignment: variable is the destination location where the result of the right side will be stored

25 25 Exercises What is printed by the following two programs? #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int value = 1; value = (value + 5) * (value 3); cout << value << endl; } double amount = 2.5; value = 7; amount = value + 6 / amount; cout << amount << endl; cout << value % 3 << endl; return 0; #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int x = 5; int y = 3; double z = x % y * 6 + x / y; cout << z << endl; z = 1.0 / 4 * (z x) + y; cout << z << endl; return 0; }

### CS 103 Lecture 2 Slides

1 CS 103 Lecture 2 Slides C/C++ Basics Mark Redekopp 2 Get your VM's installed. Do's and Don'ts with your VM HW 1 Announcements Installing the 'Guest Additions' for the Linux VM Backing up files Not installing

### CS 103 Lecture 2 Slides

1 CS 103 Lecture 2 Slides C/C++ Basics Mark Redekopp 2 Get your VM's installed. Announcements We've added updates to the instructions for installing the VM on our website Using 'curl' to re-download the.ova

### CS103L FALL 2017 UNIT 1: TYPES, VARIABLES,EXPRESSIONS,C++ BASICS

CS103L FALL 2017 UNIT 1: TYPES, VARIABLES,EXPRESSIONS,C++ BASICS LOGISTICS Homework due tonight and Thursday Should be able to do after reading textbook - go to TA/CP office hours Do the lab Go to lab

### Review: Exam 1. Your First C++ Program. Declaration Statements. Tells the compiler. Examples of declaration statements

Review: Exam 1 9/20/06 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science 1 1 Your First C++ Program 1 //*********************************************************** 2 // File name: hello.cpp 3 // Author: Shereen Khoja

### CHAPTER 3 BASIC INSTRUCTION OF C++

CHAPTER 3 BASIC INSTRUCTION OF C++ MOHD HATTA BIN HJ MOHAMED ALI Computer programming (BFC 20802) Subtopics 2 Parts of a C++ Program Classes and Objects The #include Directive Variables and Literals Identifiers

### Chapter 2: Introduction to C++

Chapter 2: Introduction to C++ Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright Publishing as 2010 Pearson Pearson Addison-Wesley Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley 2.1 Parts of a C++

### Chapter 2: Special Characters. Parts of a C++ Program. Introduction to C++ Displays output on the computer screen

Chapter 2: Introduction to C++ 2.1 Parts of a C++ Program Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2009 Publishing Pearson as Pearson Education, Addison-Wesley Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

### Objectives. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Introduction. Objectives (cont d.) A C++ Program (cont d.) A C++ Program

Objectives Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types Discover how a program evaluates

### Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types Discover how a program evaluates

### Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives. Objectives (cont d.) A C++ Program. Introduction

Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition 1 Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers

### The C++ Language. Arizona State University 1

The C++ Language CSE100 Principles of Programming with C++ (based off Chapter 2 slides by Pearson) Ryan Dougherty Arizona State University http://www.public.asu.edu/~redoughe/ Arizona State University

### 2.1. Chapter 2: Parts of a C++ Program. Parts of a C++ Program. Introduction to C++ Parts of a C++ Program

Chapter 2: Introduction to C++ 2.1 Parts of a C++ Program Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley 2-1 Parts of a C++ Program Parts of a C++ Program // sample C++ program

### LECTURE 02 INTRODUCTION TO C++

PowerPoint Slides adapted from *Starting Out with C++: From Control Structures through Objects, 7/E* by *Tony Gaddis* Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc. COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LECTURE 02 INTRODUCTION

### Declaration and Memory

Declaration and Memory With the declaration int width; the compiler will set aside a 4-byte (32-bit) block of memory (see right) The compiler has a symbol table, which will have an entry such as Identifier

### C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives (continued) Become familiar with the use of increment and decrement operators Examine

### Chapter 2: Overview of C++

Chapter 2: Overview of C++ Problem Solving, Abstraction, and Design using C++ 6e by Frank L. Friedman and Elliot B. Koffman C++ Background Introduced by Bjarne Stroustrup of AT&T s Bell Laboratories in

### Objectives. In this chapter, you will:

Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types Discover how a program evaluates arithmetic expressions Learn about

### CSc 10200! Introduction to Computing. Lecture 2-3 Edgardo Molina Fall 2013 City College of New York

CSc 10200! Introduction to Computing Lecture 2-3 Edgardo Molina Fall 2013 City College of New York 1 C++ for Engineers and Scientists Third Edition Chapter 2 Problem Solving Using C++ 2 Objectives In this

### Zheng-Liang Lu Java Programming 45 / 79

1 class Lecture2 { 2 3 "Elementray Programming" 4 5 } 6 7 / References 8 [1] Ch. 2 in YDL 9 [2] Ch. 2 and 3 in Sharan 10 [3] Ch. 2 in HS 11 / Zheng-Liang Lu Java Programming 45 / 79 Example Given a radius

### 7/8/10 KEY CONCEPTS. Problem COMP 10 EXPLORING COMPUTER SCIENCE. Algorithm. Lecture 2 Variables, Types, and Programs. Program PROBLEM SOLVING

KEY CONCEPTS COMP 10 EXPLORING COMPUTER SCIENCE Lecture 2 Variables, Types, and Programs Problem Definition of task to be performed (by a computer) Algorithm A particular sequence of steps that will solve

### By the end of this section you should: Understand what the variables are and why they are used. Use C++ built in data types to create program

1 By the end of this section you should: Understand what the variables are and why they are used. Use C++ built in data types to create program variables. Apply C++ syntax rules to declare variables, initialize

### C++ Basic Elements of COMPUTER PROGRAMMING. Special symbols include: Word symbols. Objectives. Programming. Symbols. Symbols.

EEE-117 COMPUTER PROGRAMMING Basic Elements of C++ Objectives General Questions Become familiar with the basic components of a C++ program functions, special symbols, and identifiers Data types Arithmetic

### Exercise: Inventing Language

Memory Computers get their powerful flexibility from the ability to store and retrieve data Data is stored in main memory, also known as Random Access Memory (RAM) Exercise: Inventing Language Get a separate

### A First Program - Greeting.cpp

C++ Basics A First Program - Greeting.cpp Preprocessor directives Function named main() indicates start of program // Program: Display greetings #include using namespace std; int main() { cout

### REVIEW. The C++ Programming Language. CS 151 Review #2

REVIEW The C++ Programming Language Computer programming courses generally concentrate on program design that can be applied to any number of programming languages on the market. It is imperative, however,

### 6.096 Introduction to C++ January (IAP) 2009

MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 6.096 Introduction to C++ January (IAP) 2009 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. Welcome to 6.096 Lecture

### C++ Basics. Lecture 2 COP 3014 Spring January 8, 2018

C++ Basics Lecture 2 COP 3014 Spring 2018 January 8, 2018 Structure of a C++ Program Sequence of statements, typically grouped into functions. function: a subprogram. a section of a program performing

### Overview. - General Data Types - Categories of Words. - Define Before Use. - The Three S s. - End of Statement - My First Program

Overview - General Data Types - Categories of Words - The Three S s - Define Before Use - End of Statement - My First Program a description of data, defining a set of valid values and operations List of

### Unit 1. Digital Representation

1 Unit 1 Digital Representation 2 Information Representation All information is represented as sequences of 1's and 0's 5 kinds of information Numbers Text Instructions Sound Image/Video 3 Why 1 s and

### On a 64-bit CPU. Size/Range vary by CPU model and Word size.

On a 64-bit CPU. Size/Range vary by CPU model and Word size. unsigned short x; //range 0 to 65553 signed short x; //range ± 32767 short x; //assumed signed There are (usually) no unsigned floats or doubles.

### BITG 1233: Introduction to C++

BITG 1233: Introduction to C++ 1 Learning Outcomes At the end of this lecture, you should be able to: Identify basic structure of C++ program (pg 3) Describe the concepts of : Character set. (pg 11) Token

### Intro to Programming & C Why Program? 1.2 Computer Systems: Hardware and Software. Why Learn to Program?

Intro to Programming & C++ Unit 1 Sections 1.1-4 and 2.1-10, 2.12-13, 2.15-17 CS 1428 Spring 2019 Jill Seaman 1.1 Why Program? Computer programmable machine designed to follow instructions Program a set

### UNIT- 3 Introduction to C++

UNIT- 3 Introduction to C++ C++ Character Sets: Letters A-Z, a-z Digits 0-9 Special Symbols Space + - * / ^ \ ( ) [ ] =!= . \$, ; : %! &? _ # = @ White Spaces Blank spaces, horizontal tab, carriage

### Expressions and Data Types CSC 121 Spring 2015 Howard Rosenthal

Expressions and Data Types CSC 121 Spring 2015 Howard Rosenthal Lesson Goals Understand the basic constructs of a Java Program Understand how to use basic identifiers Understand simple Java data types

### Exercise: Using Numbers

Exercise: Using Numbers Problem: You are a spy going into an evil party to find the super-secret code phrase (made up of letters and spaces), which you will immediately send via text message to your team

### THE INTEGER DATA TYPES. Laura Marik Spring 2012 C++ Course Notes (Provided by Jason Minski)

THE INTEGER DATA TYPES STORAGE OF INTEGER TYPES IN MEMORY All data types are stored in binary in memory. The type that you give a value indicates to the machine what encoding to use to store the data in

### Data and Variables. Data Types Expressions. String Concatenation Variables Declaration Assignment Shorthand operators. Operators Precedence

Data and Variables Data Types Expressions Operators Precedence String Concatenation Variables Declaration Assignment Shorthand operators Review class All code in a java file is written in a class public

### PART I. Part II Answer to all the questions 1. What is meant by a token? Name the token available in C++.

Unit - III CHAPTER - 9 INTRODUCTION TO C++ Choose the correct answer. PART I 1. Who developed C++? (a) Charles Babbage (b) Bjarne Stroustrup (c) Bill Gates (d) Sundar Pichai 2. What was the original name

### BASIC ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER PROGRAM

BASIC ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER PROGRAM CSC128 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER PROBLEM SOLVING LOGO Contents 1 Identifier 2 3 Rules for naming and declaring data variables Basic data types 4 Arithmetic operators

### Introduction to C++ General Rules, Conventions and Styles CS 16: Solving Problems with Computers I Lecture #2

Introduction to C++ General Rules, Conventions and Styles CS 16: Solving Problems with Computers I Lecture #2 Ziad Matni Dept. of Computer Science, UCSB Administrative This class is currently FULL and

### Creating a C++ Program

Program A computer program (also software, or just a program) is a sequence of instructions written in a sequence to perform a specified task with a computer. 1 Creating a C++ Program created using an

### Full file at

Java Programming, Fifth Edition 2-1 Chapter 2 Using Data within a Program At a Glance Instructor s Manual Table of Contents Overview Objectives Teaching Tips Quick Quizzes Class Discussion Topics Additional

### VARIABLES & ASSIGNMENTS

Fall 2018 CS150 - Intro to CS I 1 VARIABLES & ASSIGNMENTS Sections 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 Fall 2018 CS150 - Intro to CS I 2 Variables Named storage location for holding data named piece of memory You need

### 10.1. Unit 10. Signed Representation Systems Binary Arithmetic

0. Unit 0 Signed Representation Systems Binary Arithmetic 0.2 BINARY REPRESENTATION SYSTEMS REVIEW 0.3 Interpreting Binary Strings Given a string of s and 0 s, you need to know the representation system

### CMPT 125: Lecture 3 Data and Expressions

CMPT 125: Lecture 3 Data and Expressions Tamara Smyth, tamaras@cs.sfu.ca School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University January 3, 2009 1 Character Strings A character string is an object in Java,

### CSE 1001 Fundamentals of Software Development 1. Identifiers, Variables, and Data Types Dr. H. Crawford Fall 2018

CSE 1001 Fundamentals of Software Development 1 Identifiers, Variables, and Data Types Dr. H. Crawford Fall 2018 Identifiers, Variables and Data Types Reserved Words Identifiers in C Variables and Values

### Java Notes. 10th ICSE. Saravanan Ganesh

Java Notes 10th ICSE Saravanan Ganesh 13 Java Character Set Character set is a set of valid characters that a language can recognise A character represents any letter, digit or any other sign Java uses

### Expressions and Data Types CSC 121 Fall 2015 Howard Rosenthal

Expressions and Data Types CSC 121 Fall 2015 Howard Rosenthal Lesson Goals Understand the basic constructs of a Java Program Understand how to use basic identifiers Understand simple Java data types and

### Full file at

Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 3 rd Edition 2-1 Chapter 2 Basic Elements of Java At a Glance Instructor s Manual Table of Contents Overview Objectives s Quick Quizzes Class

### CS2141 Software Development using C/C++ C++ Basics

CS2141 Software Development using C/C++ C++ Basics Integers Basic Types Can be short, long, or just plain int C++ does not define the size of them other than short

### Chapter 2 Using Data. Instructor s Manual Table of Contents. At a Glance. Overview. Objectives. Teaching Tips. Quick Quizzes. Class Discussion Topics

Java Programming, Sixth Edition 2-1 Chapter 2 Using Data At a Glance Instructor s Manual Table of Contents Overview Objectives Teaching Tips Quick Quizzes Class Discussion Topics Additional Projects Additional

### Lecture 3 Tao Wang 1

Lecture 3 Tao Wang 1 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Arithmetic operations Variables and declaration statements Program input using the cin object Common programming errors C++ for Engineers

### Basic Operations jgrasp debugger Writing Programs & Checkstyle

Basic Operations jgrasp debugger Writing Programs & Checkstyle Suppose you wanted to write a computer game to play "Rock, Paper, Scissors". How many combinations are there? Is there a tricky way to represent

Chapter 2 C++ Basics 1 Overview 2.1 Variables and Assignments 2.2 Input and Output 2.3 Data Types and Expressions 2.4 Simple Flow of Control 2.5 Program Style Slide 2-3 2.1 Variables and Assignments 2

### Chapter 2 Basic Elements of C++

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition 2-1 Chapter 2 Basic Elements of C++ At a Glance Instructor s Manual Table of Contents Overview Objectives s Quick Quizzes Class Discussion

### 2 nd Week Lecture Notes

2 nd Week Lecture Notes Scope of variables All the variables that we intend to use in a program must have been declared with its type specifier in an earlier point in the code, like we did in the previous

Chapter 2 C++ Basics Overview 2.1 Variables and Assignments 2.2 Input and Output 2.3 Data Types and Expressions 2.4 Simple Flow of Control 2.5 Program Style 3 2.1 Variables and Assignments Variables and

### Chapter 2. C++ Basics

Chapter 2 C++ Basics Overview 2.1 Variables and Assignments 2.2 Input and Output 2.3 Data Types and Expressions 2.4 Simple Flow of Control 2.5 Program Style Slide 2-2 2.1 Variables and Assignments Variables

### CSc Introduction to Computing

CSc 10200 Introduction to Computing Lecture 2 Edgardo Molina Fall 2011 - City College of New York Thursday, September 1, 2011 Introduction to C++ Modular program: A program consisting of interrelated segments

### Basics of Java Programming

Basics of Java Programming Lecture 2 COP 3252 Summer 2017 May 16, 2017 Components of a Java Program statements - A statement is some action or sequence of actions, given as a command in code. A statement

### Character Set. The character set of C represents alphabet, digit or any symbol used to represent information. Digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 9

Character Set The character set of C represents alphabet, digit or any symbol used to represent information. Types Uppercase Alphabets Lowercase Alphabets Character Set A, B, C, Y, Z a, b, c, y, z Digits

### Reserved Words and Identifiers

1 Programming in C Reserved Words and Identifiers Reserved word Word that has a specific meaning in C Ex: int, return Identifier Word used to name and refer to a data element or object manipulated by the

### Computer System and programming in C

1 Basic Data Types Integral Types Integers are stored in various sizes. They can be signed or unsigned. Example Suppose an integer is represented by a byte (8 bits). Leftmost bit is sign bit. If the sign

### Chapter 2 Working with Data Types and Operators

JavaScript, Fourth Edition 2-1 Chapter 2 Working with Data Types and Operators At a Glance Instructor s Manual Table of Contents Overview Objectives Teaching Tips Quick Quizzes Class Discussion Topics

### ! A program is a set of instructions that the. ! It must be translated. ! Variable: portion of memory that stores a value. char

Week 1 Operators, Data Types & I/O Gaddis: Chapters 1, 2, 3 CS 5301 Fall 2016 Jill Seaman Programming A program is a set of instructions that the computer follows to perform a task It must be translated

### Main Memory Organization

Main Memory Organization Bit Smallest piece of memory Stands for binary digit Has values 0 (off) or 1 (on) Byte Is 8 consecu>ve bits Word Usually 4 consecu>ve bytes Has an address 8 bits 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

### Chapter 2. Outline. Simple C++ Programs

Chapter 2 Simple C++ Programs Outline Objectives 1. Building C++ Solutions with IDEs: Dev-cpp, Xcode 2. C++ Program Structure 3. Constant and Variables 4. C++ Operators 5. Standard Input and Output 6.

### Chapter Overview. C++ Basics. Variables and Assignments. Variables and Assignments. Keywords. Identifiers. 2.1 Variables and Assignments

Chapter 2 C++ Basics Overview 2.1 Variables and Assignments 2.2 Input and Output 2.3 Data Types and Expressions 2.4 Simple Flow of Control 2.5 Program Style Copyright 2011 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights

### These are reserved words of the C language. For example int, float, if, else, for, while etc.

Tokens in C Keywords These are reserved words of the C language. For example int, float, if, else, for, while etc. Identifiers An Identifier is a sequence of letters and digits, but must start with a letter.

### The type of all data used in a C (or C++) program must be specified

The type of all data used in a C (or C++) program must be specified A data type is a description of the data being represented That is, a set of possible values and a set of operations on those values

### Operations. Making Things Happen

Operations Making Things Happen Object Review and Continue Lecture 1 2 Object Categories There are three kinds of objects: Literals: unnamed objects having a value (0, -3, 2.5, 2.998e8, 'A', "Hello\n",...)

### Getting started with C++ (Part 2)

Getting started with C++ (Part 2) CS427: Elements of Software Engineering Lecture 2.2 11am, 16 Jan 2012 CS427 Getting started with C++ (Part 2) 1/22 Outline 1 Recall from last week... 2 Recall: Output

### 1. In C++, reserved words are the same as predefined identifiers. a. True

C++ Programming From Problem Analysis to Program Design 8th Edition Malik TEST BANK Full clear download (no formatting errors) at: https://testbankreal.com/download/c-programming-problem-analysis-program-design-8thedition-malik-test-bank/

### Review for COSC 120 8/31/2017. Review for COSC 120 Computer Systems. Review for COSC 120 Computer Structure

Computer Systems Computer System Computer Structure C++ Environment Imperative vs. object-oriented programming in C++ Input / Output Primitive data types Software Banking System Compiler Music Player Text

### Chapter 2: Data and Expressions

Chapter 2: Data and Expressions CS 121 Department of Computer Science College of Engineering Boise State University August 21, 2017 Chapter 2: Data and Expressions CS 121 1 / 51 Chapter 1 Terminology Review

### CHAPTER 3 Expressions, Functions, Output

CHAPTER 3 Expressions, Functions, Output More Data Types: Integral Number Types short, long, int (all represent integer values with no fractional part). Computer Representation of integer numbers - Number

### Work relative to other classes

Work relative to other classes 1 Hours/week on projects 2 C BOOTCAMP DAY 1 CS3600, Northeastern University Slides adapted from Anandha Gopalan s CS132 course at Univ. of Pittsburgh Overview C: A language

### Features of C. Portable Procedural / Modular Structured Language Statically typed Middle level language

1 History C is a general-purpose, high-level language that was originally developed by Dennis M. Ritchie to develop the UNIX operating system at Bell Labs. C was originally first implemented on the DEC

### CSCI 123 Introduction to Programming Concepts in C++

CSCI 123 Introduction to Programming Concepts in C++ Brad Rippe C++ Basics C++ layout Include directive #include using namespace std; int main() { } statement1; statement; return 0; Every program

### Outline. Review of Last Week II. Review of Last Week. Computer Memory. Review Variables and Memory. February 7, Data Types

Data Types Declarations and Initializations Larry Caretto Computer Science 16 Computing in Engineering and Science February 7, 25 Outline Review last week Meaning of data types Integer data types have

### Chapter 2: Data and Expressions

Chapter 2: Data and Expressions CS 121 Department of Computer Science College of Engineering Boise State University January 15, 2015 Chapter 2: Data and Expressions CS 121 1 / 1 Chapter 2 Part 1: Data

### 3. Java - Language Constructs I

Educational Objectives 3. Java - Language Constructs I Names and Identifiers, Variables, Assignments, Constants, Datatypes, Operations, Evaluation of Expressions, Type Conversions You know the basic blocks

### Computer Programming : C++

The Islamic University of Gaza Engineering Faculty Department of Computer Engineering Fall 2017 ECOM 2003 Muath i.alnabris Computer Programming : C++ Experiment #1 Basics Contents Structure of a program

### Integer Representation Floating point Representation Other data types

Chapter 2 Bits, Data Types & Operations Integer Representation Floating point Representation Other data types Why do Computers use Base 2? Base 10 Number Representation Natural representation for human

### ! A literal represents a constant value used in a. ! Numbers: 0, 34, , -1.8e12, etc. ! Characters: 'A', 'z', '!', '5', etc.

Week 1: Introduction to C++ Gaddis: Chapter 2 (excluding 2.1, 2.11, 2.14) CS 1428 Fall 2014 Jill Seaman Literals A literal represents a constant value used in a program statement. Numbers: 0, 34, 3.14159,

### Chapter 2: Using Data

Chapter 2: Using Data TRUE/FALSE 1. A variable can hold more than one value at a time. F PTS: 1 REF: 52 2. The legal integer values are -2 31 through 2 31-1. These are the highest and lowest values that

### University of Technology. Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department. C++ Lab.

University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department C++ Lab. Second week Variables Data Types. The usefulness of the "Hello World" programs shown in the previous section is quite questionable.

### Integer Data Types. Data Type. Data Types. int, short int, long int

Data Types Variables are classified according to their data type. The data type determines the kind of information that may be stored in the variable. A data type is a set of values. Generally two main

### Chapter 2: Using Data

Chapter 2: Using Data Declaring Variables Constant Cannot be changed after a program is compiled Variable A named location in computer memory that can hold different values at different points in time

### CS5000: Foundations of Programming. Mingon Kang, PhD Computer Science, Kennesaw State University

CS5000: Foundations of Programming Mingon Kang, PhD Computer Science, Kennesaw State University Overview of Source Code Components Comments Library declaration Classes Functions Variables Comments Can

### Expressions and Data Types CSC 121 Spring 2017 Howard Rosenthal

Expressions and Data Types CSC 121 Spring 2017 Howard Rosenthal Lesson Goals Understand the basic constructs of a Java Program Understand how to use basic identifiers Understand simple Java data types

### Operators and Expressions in C & C++ Mahesh Jangid Assistant Professor Manipal University, Jaipur

Operators and Expressions in C & C++ Mahesh Jangid Assistant Professor Manipal University, Jaipur Operators and Expressions 8/24/2012 Dept of CS&E 2 Arithmetic operators Relational operators Logical operators

### WARM UP LESSONS BARE BASICS

WARM UP LESSONS BARE BASICS CONTENTS Common primitive data types for variables... 2 About standard input / output... 2 More on standard output in C standard... 3 Practice Exercise... 6 About Math Expressions

### Programming in C++ 6. Floating point data types

Programming in C++ 6. Floating point data types! Introduction! Type double! Type float! Changing types! Type promotion & conversion! Casts! Initialization! Assignment operators! Summary 1 Introduction

### Introduction to C# Applications

1 2 3 Introduction to C# Applications OBJECTIVES To write simple C# applications To write statements that input and output data to the screen. To declare and use data of various types. To write decision-making

### Non-numeric types, boolean types, arithmetic. operators. Comp Sci 1570 Introduction to C++ Non-numeric types. const. Reserved words.

, ean, arithmetic s s on acters Comp Sci 1570 Introduction to C++ Outline s s on acters 1 2 3 4 s s on acters Outline s s on acters 1 2 3 4 s s on acters ASCII s s on acters ASCII s s on acters Type: acter

### LECTURE 3 C++ Basics Part 2

LECTURE 3 C++ Basics Part 2 OVERVIEW Operators Type Conversions OPERATORS Operators are special built-in symbols that have functionality, and work on operands. Operators are actually functions that use

### EEE145 Computer Programming

EEE145 Computer Programming Content of Topic 2 Extracted from cpp.gantep.edu.tr Topic 2 Dr. Ahmet BİNGÜL Department of Engineering Physics University of Gaziantep Modifications by Dr. Andrew BEDDALL Department