Network Communications Standards. Applied Information Technology

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1 Network Communications Standards Applied Information Technology

2 Network Standards Why do we need network standards? Defined guidelines for how computers or networked devices communicate Think of it as a common language that the computers can communicate with each other Apple and PC example. What is a protocol? The mechanics of how the standard is implemented Defines how the computers connect, how they transfer data.

3 IEEE Ethernet Network standard that specifies no central computer or device on the network. Using additional hardware such as routers, switches and hubs, Ethernet can be configured to a STAR NETWORK The Ethernet standard defines guidelines for the physical connectors and configuration of modern networks using RJ45 cables Modern Ethernet speeds are 100Mbps Gigabit Ethernet operates at 1000Mbps

4 Advantages Relatively inexpensive Easily installed Easily maintained Disadvantage Ethernet If two computers on the same network attempt to send data at the same time, a collision will occur, and the data will have to be resent.

5 Wi-Fi Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) Standard by which computers and devices which can communicate wirelessly via radio waves (EM spectrum) 2.4, 3.6, 5.0 and 60Ghz frequency bands. WiFi sometimes referred to as wireless Ethernet because it uses similar techniques to the Ethernet standard to specify physical connectivity

6 IEEE standard IEEE standard is a/b/g/n/ac The IEEE standard is a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication.

7 Wi-Fi What are the transmission speeds for a: b: g: n: ac: What s next ??:

8 TCP/IP Short for TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL / INTERNET PROTOCOL TCP/IP is the adopted standard for Internet Communications

9 TCP/IP - TCP TCP/IP is a two-layer program. The higher layer, manages the assembling of a message or file into smaller packets that are transmitted over the Internet and received by a TCP layer that reassembles the packets into the original message.

10 TCP/IP - IP Internet Protocol, handles the address part of each packet so that it gets to the right destination. Each gateway computer on the network checks this address to see where to forward the message. Even though some packets from the same message are routed differently than others, they'll be reassembled at the destination.

11 TCP/IP It is a specific protocol that defines how messages are routed from one end of a network to the other, ensuring the data arrives correctly TCP/IP are rules for dividing transmitted information into small pieces called packets and regulating the flow of messages along the network. Each packet contains: The data, Destination information Sender information Sequence information used to reassemble the data at the destination Each packet travels along the fastest individual path to the destination device/computer via communications devices called ROUTERS This technique is called Packet Switching

12 What is a protocol or standard? A protocol defines the format and the order of messages exchanged between two or more communicating entities. A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems.

13 The web Internet (or The Web) is a massive distributed client/server information system

14 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Basically, HTTP is a TCP/IP based communication protocol, that is used to deliver data (HTML files, image files, query results, etc.) on the World Wide Web. HTTP specification specifies how clients' request data will be constructed and sent to the server, and how the servers respond to these requests.

15 Basic Architecture - HTTP HTTP protocol is a request/response protocol based on the client/server based architecture.

16 Browser Whenever you issue a URL from your browser to get a web resource using HTTP, e.g. the browser turns the URL into a request message and sends it to the HTTP server. The HTTP server interprets the request message, and returns you an appropriate response message, which is either the resource you requested or an error message.

17 Uniform Resource Locator (URL) A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is used to uniquely identify a resource over the web.

18 Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) Secure version of HTTP The 'S' at the end of HTTPS stands for 'Secure'. Communications between your browser and the website are encrypted Often used to protect highly confidential online transactions like online banking and online shopping

19 HTTPS pages typically use one of two secure protocols to encrypt communications - SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) or TLS (Transport Layer Security).

20 WAP Before the advent of modern smartphones, internet could be accessed from mobile phones via WAP Stands for Wireless Application Protocol Provides the standard by which older mobile devices can display content of internet services such as web, and chat rooms. A Micro-browser for the phone or mobile device that is WAP compatible is required to access WAP sites. WAP works in conjunction with TCP/IP network standard. Is not used by modern smartphones

21 Bluetooth Protocol defining how two devices that are Bluetooth use short-range radio waves to transmit data. Transfer rates of up to 3Mbps Bluetooth devices must contain a small chip that allows it to communicate with other Bluetooth devices.

22 IrDA infra red Wireless transmission standard to transmit data wirelessly via infra red Infrared requires line of sight transmissions! Devices must be in view of each other. Transfer rates of around 115Kbps Max transfer rates of around 4Mbps This is not a very popular standard in these times as Bluetooth is more convenient, offering faster transfer rates without the limitation of line of sight transmissions

23 WiMAX Stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access IEEE Probably don t need to know so much about this but just know it s around

24 RFID Stands for Radio Frequency Identification Standard defining how a network uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed on or in an object, person or animal What are some examples of RFID used in society?

25 UWB UWB stands for Ultra Wide Band Network standard to specify how two UWB devices use short range radio waves to communicate at high speeds Transfer rates of 110Mbps from 10m. Around 480Mbps at closer ranges This is not a very commonly used network standard at current time. Can you find a device that uses UWB?

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