Combining methods for wastewater treatment and proper re-use by water saving irrigation

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1 Combining methods for wastewater treatment and proper re-use by water saving irrigation Mathias N Andersen Department of Agroecology University of Aarhus

2 Contents: 1. The SAFIR Project 2. Water Treatment Methods in SAFIR 3. Irrigation Methods in SAFIR 4. Field Scale Models 5. Impact Studies and Risk Assessment 6. Results on water saving irrigation 7. Conclusions so far 8. Acknowledgement

3 The SAFIR project : NEW IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATION FEASIBILITY IMPACT ON FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT PNo. Participant name Participant short name 1 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences DIAS 2 Consorzio di Bonifica di Secondo Grado per il Canale Emiliano Romagnolo 3 Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University 4 Centre for Ecology & Hydrology CER KVL NERC, CEH 5 Bureau de Researches BRGM Geologique et Minieres 6 London School of Hygiene LSHTM & Tropical Medicine 7 Danish Research Institute FOI of Food Economics 8 DHI Water and DHI Environment 9 National Agricultural NAGREF Research Foundation 10 Swiss Federal Institute of EAWAG Food Economics 11 Institute of Plant IPP-PAS Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences 12 Faculty of Agriculture, UB University of Belgrade 13 China Agricultural CAU University 14 Chinese Academy of CAAS Agricultural Sciences 15 Netafim, Drip Irrigation Netafim Technology 16 Stazione Sperimentale per SSICA l'industria delle Conserve Alimentari 17 Grundfos Management A/S Grundfos

4 Water treatment methods: Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) treating primary treated wastewater near Bologna:

5 Water treatment methods: Results of Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) treatment: COD PWW 250 Permeate /3 8/4 28/4 18/5 7/6 27/6 17/7 6/8 26/8 NO3 Average production: 8.4 m 3 /d PWW Permeate

6 Water treatment methods: Field Treatment System (FTS) used at 5 field sites for less polluted water: All Sites NETAFIM Gravel Filter Heavy Metal Removal Device Crete, CAAS, CAU Heavy Metals Dosing Pump UV disinfection Gravel Filter Backflush All Sites Fertigation Dosing Pump 150 mesh Screen Filter All Sites INLET Proportional Like Device (Integrated Sampling Point) All Sites All Sites Crete, Serbia, CAAS, CAU OUTLET Proportional Like Device (Integrated Sampling Point) All Sites Proportional Like Device (PE/PVC Storage tank) Proportional Like Device (PE/PVC Storage tank)

7 Impossible d'afficher l'image. Votre ordinateur manque peut-être de mémoire pour ouvrir l'image ou l'image est endommagée. Redémarrez l'ordinateur, puis ouvrez à nouveau le fichier. Si le x rouge est toujours affiché, vous devrez peut-être supprimer l'image avant de la réinsérer. Irrigation methods: TAP WATER PTWW/MBR Dosing STWW/FTS Dosing SPRINKLER SDI SPRINKLER SDI SPRINKLER SDI Full Irrigated PRD Full Irrigated PRD Full Irrigated PRD Full Irrigated PRD Full Irrigated PRD Full Irrigated PRD Partner 2 CER Italy Potato + Processing Tomato Tot 9 treatments - 27 plots per crop

8 Irrigation methods Experimental Partial Root-zone Drying (PRD) drip system and its placement with respect to potato plants 33, cm 75 cm 75 cm 15,0 m 16,0 m

9 Irrigation methods: TAP WATER SECONDARY WASTE WATER PRIMARY WASTE WATER POTATO + TOMATO WATER SAVING IRR. STRATEGIES SPRINKLER IRRIGATION FTS FTS FIELD FINISSAGGIO TREATMENT IN SYSTEM CAMPO MBR HIGH EFFICIENCY TREATMENT SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION RDI SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION PRD POTATO + TOMATO POTATO + TOMATO WATER SAVING IRR. STRATEGIES SPRINKLER IRRIGATION WATER SAVING IRR. STRATEGIES SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION RDI SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION PRD SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION RDI SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION PRD

10 Field scale models Two dynamic crop-soil-water-atmosphere simulation models: -SALTMED -Daisy 8 meristem Strong features of the two models will be shared and (salt) extended with: -2D-simulation of soil processes -Abscisic acid in plants as a function of PRD soil drying -Stomatal regulation as a function of abscisic acid ABA soil ABA soil -Transpiration as drying a function soil of stomatal opening ph ABA root ABA root (Penman-Monteith) salt compaction irrigated soil ph salt compaction

11 Impact studies and risk assessment Safety of Food and Environment Pathogens and Heavy Metals Presumptive indicators of pollution Helminth eggs Cryptosporidium and Giardia May be of nonfaecal origin and multiply in the environment Thermotolerant coliforms Total coliforms Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Arizona, Hafnia and Klebsiella 95% is E. coli E. coli, Enterobacter, Citrobacter Unpolluted soils and waters

12 Impact studies and risk assessment Safety of Food and Environment Pathogens and Heavy Metals 1.E+05 1.E+04 Concentration of E. coli in STWW, STWW with sand filtration, PTWW and PTWW with MBR CFU/ml 1.E+03 1.E+02 1.E+01 1.E+00 1.E May June June July August 2007 Secondary treated waste water before SAFIR treatment Primary treated waste water before SAFIR treatment Secondary treated waste water after SAFIR treatment Primary treated waste water after SAFIR treatment Bologna, Italy: Sand filtration has no effect on E. coli. MBR reduces number of E. coli (-3-log). Soil from surface of potatoes all negative for E. coli whereas some soil samples (tomatoes) positive for E. coli. Potatoes and tomatoes all negative.

13 Impact studies and risk assessment Quality of ±Processed Food Evaluation of fresh matter food quality Physical and chemical characteristics assessment Industrial processing of the harvested vegetables into stabilizes commercial products (tomato puree and potato flakes) Physical-Chemical analyses done in food samples: Analyses of Minerals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Fe, Cu, As, Ni, Zn, Hg, Sn, P, Mg, K, Na, Na, K, P, B ) Analysis of microelements (Se, Li, B) Analysis of quality markers (Total Solids, ph, Hunter Colour, Sugars, Tot.Acidity, Consistency, NO3 - N tot)

14 Impact studies and risk assessment Pollution of the Environment - Inorganic compounds 02/08/06 02/08/06 02/08/06 02/08/06 02/08/06 19/09/06 LOQ I2-integ-TapWater I2-integ-I Before 19/09/06 19/09/06 19/09/06 19/09/06 19/09/06 19/09/06 I2-integ-I After I2-integ-II Before I2-integ-II After I2-WW-Tap I2-WW-I -Before I2-WW-II -Before I2-WW-II -After I2-integ-Tapwater I2-integ-II Before I2-integ-II After Italy 2006-season No or uncertain effect COT 0,5 1,2 15,7 12,2 4,9 4,6 1,1 44,8 5,9 1,9 0,8 5,6 6,2 Ca 0,5 36,8 89,5 70,2 96,7 88,1 115,4 147,2 111,6 116,1 115,4 109,2 109,3 Mg 0,5 23,5 27,7 18,6 21,6 23,5 22,2 30, ,7 24,8 24,3 24,4 Na 0,5 29,1 138,3 72,5 109,2 118,8 31,8 281,8 38,6 31,8 30,8 133,1 115,7 K 0,5 14,1 7 16,5 17,7 2,7 15,9 7,8 2,9 2,8 15,4 13,7 HCO Cl 0,5 19, ,2 136,3 28,4 491,7 25,7 25,6 25,6 154,1 134 SO4 0,5 78,5 93, ,4 93,7 98,8 111, ,2 120,1 168,7 PO4 0,1 < LQ 8, ,2 32,1 < LQ 9,8 12 0,8 < LQ 9,7 8,5 F 0,1 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 As 1 < LQ 3,7 2,2 3,5 3,9 < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ 3,2 3 B Cu 1 < LQ 5 < LQ < LQ Li Mn 5 < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ SiO2 0,5 16,9 18,7 18,3 20,3 22,1 14,5 16,7 25,3 15,4 15,6 17,4 16,4 Sr Zn 5 < LQ 11 < LQ < LQ RSEC 0,1 COD 0,5 1,1 27,2 2,6 1,2 Most values < LOQ NH4 0,1 < LQ 69,3 1,5 < LQ CO3 5 < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ NO3 0,5 15,2 < LQ < LQ 12,3 NO2 0,01 < LQ 0,17 < LQ < LQ Al 10 < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ 17 < LQ < LQ Cd 0,5 < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ Co 1 < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ Cr 5 5,6 10,8 9,4 7,5 7,4 0,7 1,9 0,7 0,6 < LQ < LQ < LQ Fe 0,02 < LQ < LQ < LQ 0,04 < LQ < LQ 0,03 < LQ < LQ < LQ 0,07 0,05 Ni 1 < LQ 3,1 4,5 4 4,6 74,2 3,8 3,5 61,4 5,5 4,8 7,5 Pb 1 < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ Se 1 < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ < LQ

15 Impact studies and risk assessment Risk assessment according to WHO, 2006 The revised guidelines do no longer only focus on wastewater treatment and crop restriction but offer a wider range of risk reduction measures such as localised (drip) irrigation techniques, food preparation measures like washing or peeling of produce and also takes natural die-off of pathogens on produce into consideration.

16 Impact studies and risk assessment Risk assessment according to WHO, 2006 The Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) indicator adds years of life expectancy lost due to premature death and duration of illness A widely used limit of tolerable risk, is 10-5 lifetime risk, or 1 excess case of cancer over a lifetime per 100,000 of the population ingesting water with a given chemical. In terms of DALYs rounded to a simple figure this disease burden is equivalent to 1 x 10-6 DALY per person per year (pppy) (WHO, 2003)

17 Impact studies and risk assessment Risk assessment according to WHO, 2006 Involuntary ingestion of soil, subsurface irrigated by MBR treated primary wastewater Soil quality: 360 E. coli per 100 gram of soil Mechanised agriculture: 1-10 mg of soil per day ingested Working Days: 100 days SAFE Risk (DALY per person per year) Rota Virus Mean 7.0 * 10-4, SD Campylobacter Mean 3.0 * 10-5, SD Cryptosporodium Mean 0.000, SD

18 Impact studies and risk assessment Risk assessment according to WHO, 2006 Consumption of tomatoes, surface irrigated by MBR treated primary wastewater Produce quality: Consumption pattern: 2,000 E. coli per 100 gram of tomatoes 100 grams every three days UNSAFE Risk (DALY per person per year) Rota Virus Mean 2.0 * 10-2, SD 0.03 Campylobacter Mean 1.0 *10-3, SD Cryptosporodium Mean , SD

19 Results on water saving irrigation Semifield-facility, where all components in the water balance: irrigation/precipitation drainage soil water content evapotranspiration, can be controlled or measured I ET ET = I - θgain - D Loam Sand loam Coarse sand Coarse sand θgain = WCe-WCs D

20 Results on water saving irrigation Experimental Design: 3 soil types + Irrigation treatments: FI: Drip irrigated daily to 25% deficit PRD1: PRD 70% in phase 1 PRD2: PRD 70% in phase 2

21 Results on water saving irrigation 2006-season Soil water content in PRD2: Automatic horizontal TDR (sand loam in ridge z:0.08) Middel af Water Right drip Plant (middle) Left drip 03/06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /06/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /07/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/ /08/2006

22 Results on water saving irrigation Water balance 2006: Soil Treatment Irrigation Soil water Drainage Total evapotranspiration Coarse sand Sand loam Loam (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) FI ± PRD ± PRD ± FI ± PRD ± PRD ± FI ± PRD ± PRD ±

23 Results on water saving irrigation Size-grading of tubers:

24 Meta-analysis Yield sand: PRD2 v. FI Total yie eld (t/ha) A Both years PRD2 FI PRD-FI L L -6 Yield differe ence (t/ha)

25 Marketable yield : PRD2 v. FI yield (t/ha) Marketable B * *** PRD 2 FI PRD-FI Yield differe ence (t/ha) Both years 0

26 Irr.WUE : PRD2 v. FI IrrWUE (k kg/ha mm) C *** * *** Both years PRD 2 FI PRD-FI 70 IrrWUE diff. (kg/ha mm)

27 20 Results on water saving irrigation Jyndevad, Foulum and Rønhave Soils Tuber quality 2006: 18 Scab index and pct. malshaped tubers Scab Deform 2 0 J J J F F F R R R FI PRD1 PRD2 FI PRD1 PRD2 FI PRD1 PRD2 S2M1 S3M3 S3M4 S2M1 S3M3 S3M4 S2M1 S3M3 S3M4 Sand Sand loam Loam

28 Conclusions so far: After 2 years of SAFIR experiments: The treatment systems combined with subsurface drip irrigation have worked well, i.e. the water quality produced is suitable for SDI. PRD 70% during the tuber filling stage produced yield and quality equivalent to a fully irrigated treatment and had 20% higher irrigation water use efficiency and a marketable yield that was 15% higher than FI. Management models for PRD irrigation will be developed for tomato and potato. The first lesson of SAFIR is that low quality water can be used. European and Chinese field experiments with potatoes and tomatoes grown on treated wastewater (vs. drinking water) indicate that contaminants and pathogens are very low in both the irrigation water delivered to the crops and the final product, and that food quality is good.

29 Conclusions so far: The SAFIR project will in addition provide data for risk assessment in general of various irrigation practices. This will help in setting standards and be used in defining good agricultural practice for re-use of water when developing product certification schemes.

30 Acknowledgement Sven-Erik Jacobsen 2, Seyed Hamid Ahmadi 1, Finn Plauborg 1, Fulai Liu 2, Adriano Battilani 3, Martin Andersen 4, Michele Steiner 5, Georgios Psarras 6, Radmila Stikic 7, Guitong Li 8, Xuebin Qi 9, Anita Forslund 2, Wolfram Klopmann 10, Luca Sandei 11, Jeroen Ensink 12 1 Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Århus, Denmark 2 Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 3 Consorzio di Bonifica di secondo grado per il Canale Emilliano Romagnolo, Bologna, Italy, 4 Grundfos BioBooster A/S, Bjerringbro, Denmark, 5 Swiss Federal Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zürich, Switzerland, 6 National Agricultural Research Foundation, Chania, Crete, Greece, 7 Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade University, Serbia, 8 College of Resource and Environment, China Agricultural University, 9 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang, China, 10 Bureau de Researches Geologique et Minieres, Orleans, France, 11 Stazione Sperimentale Industria Conserve Alimentari, Parma, Italy, 12 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom