Inside Bluetooth Low Energy

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1 Inside Bluetooth Low Energy Naresh Gupta BOSTON LONDON artechhouse.com

2 Contents Preface Acknowledgments Foreword xix xxiii xxv Introduction Introduction to Wireless Communication Data Rates and Coverage Wide Area Network Metropolitan Area Network Local Area Network Personal Area Network Body Area Network Why Have Standards? Introduction to Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy Applications Finding and Alerting Devices Proximity and Presence Detection HealthCare Sports and Fitness Equipment Mobile Payments Competing Technologies ANT and ANT ZigBee Near Field Communication (NFC) Summary 14 References 14 Background of Bluetooth Introduction Ad Hoc Networks Why? Printing Documents, Photos Exchanging Business Cards, Photos, Music, Files 16 vii

3 viii Contents 2.3 What is Bluetooth? Bluetooth SIG History of the Bluetooth Specification IEEE Family of Specifications Bluetooth Basics Bluetooth Architecture Overview Basic Terminology Host, Host Controller, and Host Controller Interface (HQ) Device Address (BD_ADDR) and Device Name Class of Device (CoD) Bluetooth Clock Protocol Data Unit (PDU) Data Rates Connection Setup and Topology IEEE Word Usage Summary 31 References 32 Bluetooth Lower Layers Introduction Bluetooth Radio Frequency Band and Hopping Baseband Controller Topology Piconet and Scatternet Time Division Duplex Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH) Master, Slave Roles and Role Switch Channel, Transport and Links Packet Format Packet Types Link Controller States Link Manager (LM) Connection Control Security Host Controller Interface (HCI) HCI Packet Types HCI Commands and Events Buffers HCI Flow Control Connection Handle HCI Transport Layer Security Secure Simple Pairing (SSP) Passive Eavesdropping Protection Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) Attack Protection Association Models 72

4 Contents ix 3.7 Practical Scenarios Inquiry Connection Establishment Summary 76 Reference 77 Bluetooth Upper Layers and Profiles Introduction Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) Modes of operation L2CAP PDUs L2CAP Features L2CAP Signaling Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) Service Record, Service Attributes and Service Class Searching and Browsing Services SDP Transactions RFCOMM Object Exchange Protocol (OBEX) OBEX Operations Audio/Video Control Transport Protocol (AVCTP) Audio/Video Distribution Transport Protocol (AVDTP) Profiles Generic Access Profile (GAP) Bluetooth Parameters Representation Modes Idle Mode Procedures Established Procedures Authentication Security Serial Port Profile (SPP) Headset Profile, Hands-Free Profile Generic Object Exchange Profile (GOEP) Object Push Profile (OPP) File Transfer Profile (FTP) Generic Audio/Video Distribution Profile (GAVDP) Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP) Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP) Summary 117 Bibliography 117 Getting the Hands Wet Introduction Ingredients 119

5 X Contents 5.3 Basic Bluetooth Operations Enabling and Disabling Bluetooth Discovering Devices Browsing Services Real World Application Cafe Bluebite Requirements Specification High Level Design Code Complete Code Disclaimer Summary 130 Bibliography Bluetooth Low Energy Fundamentals Introduction Single Mode versus Dual Mode Devices Bluetooth Smart Marks Bluetooth Smart (Sensor-Type Devices) Bluetooth Smart Ready (Hubs) LE Fundamentals Frequency Bands Mostly Off Technology Faster Connections Reduced Functionality Shorter Packets Reduced Dynamic Memory Footprint Optimized Power Consumption of Peripherals No Need for Continuous Polling Backward Compatibility With BR/EDR LE Architecture Comparison between BR/EDR and LE Summary 141 Bibliography 143 Physical Layer Introduction Frequency Bands Transmitter Only, Receiver Only, or Both Output Power Range Modulation Characteristics LE Timeline Summary 149 Bibliography 150

6 Contents xi CHAPTER 8 Link Layer Introduction Overview of Link Layer States Standby State Advertising State (Advertiser) Scanning State (Scanner) Initiating State (Initiator) Connection State (Master or Slave) Device Address Public Device Address Random Address Physical Channel Channel Map Adaptive Frequency Hopping Events Advertising Events Connection Events Topology Packet Format Preamble Access Address CRC PDU Bit Stream Processing Link Layer States Nonconnected States Connection State Link Layer Control Procedures Connection Update Procedure Channel Map Update Procedure Encryption Procedure Feature Exchange Procedure Version Exchange Procedure Termination Procedure Device Filtering and White List Practical Examples Summary 183 Bibliography 184 Host Controller Interface and Commands Introduction HCI Packet Types HCI Command Packets 186

7 xii Contents HCI Event Packet HCI ACL Data Packet HCI Commands and Events Device Setup Controller Flow Control Host Flow Control Controller Information Remote Information Controller Configuration Device Discovery Connection Setup Connection State Physical Links Link Information Authentication and Encryption Testing Usage of White Lists Practical Sequence Diagrams Passive Scanning Typical Sequence for Active Scanning Connection Establishment Setting up White list Summary 199 Bibliography 199 Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) Introduction PDUandSDU Basic Assumptions Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) L2CAP Features Fixed Channel Identifiers Fragmentation and Defragmentation of Data Channel Multiplexing Data Packets L2CAP Parameters L2CAP Signaling Command Reject Connection Parameter Update Request Connection Parameter Update Response Practical Examples Summary 209 Bibliography 209

8 Contents x//7 CHAPTER 11 Security Manager (SM) Introduction Security in Host Instead of Controller Asymmetrical Architecture Security Breaches Passive Eavesdropping MITM (Active Eavesdropping) Tracking Pairing Methods Just Works Passkey Entry Out of Band Security Properties Authenticated MITM Protection Unauthenticated no MITM Protection No Security Cryptographic Functions Security Function e Random Address Function ah Confirm Value Generation Function cl Key Generation Function si Pairing Phase 1: Pairing Feature Exchange Phase 2: Short Term Key (STK) Generation Phase 3: Transport Specific Key Distribution Security Manager Protocol Commands Used During Phase 1 (Pairing Feature Exchange) Commands Used During Phase 2 (STK Generation) Commands Used During Phase 3 (Transport Specific Key Distribution) Practical Examples Summary 230 Bibliography 231 Attribute Protocol (ATT) Introduction Attribute Attribute Type Attribute Handle Attribute Permissions Attribute Value Control Point Attributes 236

9 xiv Contents Grouping of Attribute Handles Atomic Operations Attribute Protocol PDU Format Sequential Transactions Methods Request and Response Type Methods Command Type Methods Notification Type Methods Indication and Confirmation Type Methods Practical Examples Exchange MTU Reading Primary Services of a Device Summary 257 Bibliography 258 Generic Attribute Profile (GATT) Introduction Profile Dependencies GATT-Based Profile Architecture Roles Attributes Attribute Caching Attribute Grouping Notification and Indication Service Definition Service Declaration Include Definition Characteristic Definition Configured Broadcast GATT Features Server Configuration Primary Service Discovery Relationship Discovery Characteristic Discovery Characteristic Descriptor Discovery Characteristic Value Read Characteristic Value Write Characteristic Value Notification Characteristic Value Indication Characteristic Descriptors Timeouts GATT Service Service Changed Characteristic 302

10 Contents xv 13.9 Security Considerations Authentication and Authorization Requirements Summary 304 Bibliography 304 Generic Access Profile Introduction Roles Broadcaster Role Observer Role Peripheral Role Central Role Representation of Bluetooth Parameters Bluetooth Device Address Bluetooth Device Name Bluetooth Passkey Bluetooth Class of Device Pairing Authentication and Bonding Advertising and Scan Response Data Format Local Name = (AD Type 0x08 or 0x09) Flags (AD Type-0x01) Manufacturer Specific Data (AD Type OxFF) = GAP Characteristics Device Name Characteristic Appearance Characteristic Peripheral Privacy Flag Characteristic Reconnection Address Characteristic Peripheral Preferred Connection Parameters Characteristic Operational Modes and Procedures Broadcast Mode and Observation Procedure Discovery Modes and Procedures Connection Modes and Procedures Bonding Modes and Procedures Security LE Security Mode LE Security Mode Authentication Procedure Authorization Procedure Encryption Procedure Data Signing Privacy Feature Random Device Address Summary 331 Bibliography 332

11 xvi Contents CHAPTER 15 GATT-Based Profiles Introduction Profile, Services, and Characteristics Immediate Alert Service (IAS) Service Declaration Service Characteristics Find Me Profile (FMP) Roles Link Loss Service (LLS) Service Declaration Service Characteristics Transmit Power Service (TPS) Service Declaration Service Characteristics Proximity Profile (PXP) Roles Battery Service (BAS) Service Declaration Service Characteristics Device Information Service (DIS) Service Declaration Service Characteristics Current Time Service (CTS) Service Declaration Service Characteristics Health Thermometer Service (HTS) Service Declaration Service Characteristics Health Thermometer Profile (HTP) Roles Blood Pressure Service (BPS) Service Declaration Service Characteristics Blood Pressure Profile (BLP) Roles Health, Sports and Fitness Profiles Other Services and Profiles Practical Examples Summary 348 Bibliography 348 Developing LE Applications Introduction 349

12 Contents xvii 16.2 Ingredients Installing hcidump Basic Bluetooth operations Advertising and Scanning Creating a Connection GATT Operations Enable GATT Functionality on Server Execute GATT Procedures from the Client Reading and Writing Characteristics Disconnecting Disconnecting the GATT Connection Disconnecting the LE Connection Real-World Application Find Lost Keys Debugging LE Applications Logging the HCI Interface Air Sniffer Peer Devices and Interoperability Testing Profile Tuning Suite (PTS) Disclaimer Summary 372 References 372 Testing and Qualification Introduction Need for Bluetooth Qualification What Is Interoperability? Development Resources and Events UnPlugFest (UPF) Automotive Events SIG Device Library Profile Tuning Suite (PTS) Bluetooth Qualification Program Test Categories BQTF, BRTF BQE Test Documents Prequalification Summary 380 Bibliography 380 Glossary of Acronyms and Important Terms 381 About the Author 385 Index 387

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