Wireless Personal Area Networks

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1 CE 477 Wireless and obile Networks Wireless ersonal Area Networks Bluetooth CE 477 User cenarios Architecture rotocol tack IEEE and IEEE IEEE (Low-Rate Wireless ersonal Area Networks)

2 Bluetooth Idea Universal radio interface for ad-hoc wireless connectivity Interconnecting computer and peripherals, handheld devices, DAs, cell phones replacement of IrDA Embedded in other devices, goal: 5 /device hort range (10 m), low power consumption, license-free 2.45 GHz I Voice and data transmission, approx. 1 bit/s gross data rate One of the first modules (Ericsson).

3 Bluetooth History 1994: Ericsson (attison/haartsen), C-link project Renaming of the project: Bluetooth according to Harald Blåtand Gormsen [son of Gorm], King of Denmark in the 10 th century 1998: foundation of Bluetooth IG, : erection of a rune stone at Ercisson/Lund 2001: first consumer products for mass market pecial Interest Group Original founding members: Ericsson, Intel, IB, Nokia, Toshiba Added promoters: 3Com, Agere, icrosoft, otorola > 2500 members Common specification and certification of products (was: )

4 User cenarios Connection of peripheral devices Keyboard, mouse, headset, etc. upport of ad hoc networking Temporary networking, Bridging of networks obile phone acting as a bridge between a Bluetooth network and G

5 Characteristics 2.4 GHz I band, 79 (23) RF channels, 1 Hz carrier spacing Channel 0: 2402 Hz channel 78: 2480 Hz G-FK modulation, mw transmit power FH and TDD Frequency hopping with 1600 hops/s Hopping sequence in a pseudo random fashion, determined by a master Time division duplex for send/receive separation

6 iconet Collection of devices connected in an ad hoc fashion One unit acts as master and the others as slaves for the lifetime of the piconet aster determines hopping pattern, slaves have to synchronize Each piconet has a unique hopping pattern articipation in a piconet = synchronization to hopping sequence Each piconet has one master and up to 7 simultaneous slaves (> 200 could be parked) =aster =lave =arked =tandby

7 Forming a piconet All devices in a piconet hop together aster gives slaves its clock and device ID Addressing Hopping pattern: determined by device ID (48 bit, unique worldwide) hase in hopping pattern determined by clock Active ember Address (AA, 3 bit) arked ember Address (A, 8 bit) =aster =lave =arked =tandby

8 catternet Linking of multiple co-located piconets through the sharing of common master or slave devices Devices can be slave in one piconet and master of another Communication between piconets Devices jumping back and forth between the piconets iconets (each with a capacity of < 1 bit/s) =aster =lave =arked =tandby

9 Core protocol stack Radio: pecification of the air interface Frequencies, modulation, transmit power Baseband: Basic connection establishment acket formats, timing, basic Qo parameters Link manager protocol: Link set-up and management ecurity functions, etc. Logical Link Control and Adaptation rotocol (L2CA) Adaptation of higher layers to the baseband ervice Discovery: Device discovery in close proximity Querying of service characteristics

10 Baseband iconet/channel definition Frequency hopping for interference mitigation and medium access Low-level packet definition hysical Links ynchronous Connection Oriented Asynchronous Connectionless

11 Frequency selection during data transmission 625 µs f k f k+1 f k+2 f k+3 f k+4 f k+5 f k+6 t f k f k+3 f k+4 f k+5 f k+6 t f k f k+1 f k+6 Frequency selection during data transmissions 1,3,5 slot packets t

12 AC edium Access Control and Link Types olling-based TDD packet transmission 625µs slots, master polls slaves Reservation based for CO Links Link types CO (ynchronous Connection Oriented) Voice eriodic single slot packet assignment, 64 kbit/s full-duplex, point-topoint ACL (Asynchronous ConnectionLess) Data Variable packet size (1,3,5 slots), asymmetric bandwidth, point-tomultipoint

13 Example Data Transmission ATER CO ACL CO ACL CO ACL CO ACL f 0 f 4 f 6 f 8 f 12 f 14 f 18 f 20 LAVE 1 f 1 f 7 f 9 f 13 f 19 LAVE 2 f 5 f 21 f 17 aster uses the even frequency slots, odd slots are for the slaves Every sixth slot is reserved for an CO ACL links use single or multiple slots

14 Link anager rotocol Authentication, pairing and Encryption Exchange of random numbers and signed responses ynchronization Adjusting clock offset each time a packet is received from the master Capability Negotiation Exchange of supported features: Not all the BT devices have the same capabilities (CO links, multi-slot packets, encryption) Qo-Negotiation oll interval, number of repetitions for packet transmission, etc,. ower Control Link upervision: control the activity of a link tate and transmission mode change: aster/slave role, detach, etc.

15 Baseband states of a Bluetooth device standby unconnected detach inquiry page connecting transmit AA connected AA active park A hold AA sniff AA low power tandby: do nothing Inquire: search for other devices age: connect to a specific device Connected: participate in a piconet ark: release AA, get A niff: listen periodically, not each slot Hold: stop ACL, CO still possible, possibly participate in another piconet

16 D ervice Discovery rotocol Inquiry/response protocol for discovering services earching for and browsing services in radio proximity Adapted to the highly dynamic environment Can be complemented by others like L, Jini, alutation, Defines discovery only, not the usage of services Caching of discovered services ervice record format Information about services provided by attributes Attributes are composed of an 16 bit ID (name) and a value values may be derived from 128 bit Universally Unique Identifiers (UUID)

17 WAN: IEEE Bluetooth Data rate ynchronous, connection-oriented: 64 kbit/s Asynchronous, connectionless Transmission range Frequency Cost Availability kbit/s symmetric / 57.6 kbit/s asymmetric O (ersonal Operating pace) up to 10 m with special transceivers up to 100 m Free 2.4 GHz I-band 50 adapter, drop to 5 if integrated Integrated into some products, several vendors Connection set-up time Depends on power-mode ax. 2.56s, avg. 0.64s Quality of ervice anageability Guarantees, ARQ/FEC ublic/private keys needed, key management not specified, simple system integration pecial Advantages/Disadvantages Advantage: already integrated into several products, available worldwide, free I-band, several vendors, simple system, simple ad-hoc networking, peer to peer, scatternets Disadvantage: interference on Iband, limited range, max. 8 devices/network&master, high set-up latency

18 WAN: IEEE future developments : Coexistence Coexistence of Wireless ersonal Area Networks (802.15) and Wireless Local Area Networks (802.11), quantify the mutual interference : High-Rate tandard for high-rate (20bit/s or greater) WANs, while still lowpower/low-cost Data Rates: 11, 22, 33, 44, 55 bit/s Quality of ervice isochronous protocol Ad hoc peer-to-peer networking ecurity Low power consumption Low cost Designed to meet the demanding requirements of portable consumer imaging and multimedia applications

19 WAN: IEEE future developments : Low-Rate, Very Low-ower Low data rate solution with multi-month to multi-year battery life and very low complexity otential applications are sensors, interactive toys, smart badges, remote controls, and home automation Data rates of kbit/s, latency down to 15 ms aster-lave or eer-to-eer operation upport for critical latency devices, such as joysticks CA/CA channel access (data centric), slotted (beacon) or unslotted Automatic network establishment by the AN coordinator ower management to ensure low power consumption 16 channels in the 2.4 GHz I band, 10 channels in the 915 Hz U I band and one channel in the European 868 Hz band

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