# ENERGY EFFICIENT MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

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3 3. PROPOSED SYSTEM In the traditional AOMDV, it builds multiple paths using RREQs. It does not take into account the energy for choosing the paths. Here the proposed protocol not only considers residual energy but also transmission power of nodes in paths selection to maximize the lifetime of networks. The proposed system consists of three stages: 1. Control transmission power 2. Calculate residual energy 3. System operation 3.1. Transmission Power Control When a node receives a packet from a neighbor, the channel attenuation is computed as the difference of the transmitted power Power txmax and the received power Power rx. The ideal transmission power can be calculated as follows: Power tx = Power txmax Power rx + S r + Sec th (1) where S r is the minimal power level required for correct packet reception and Sec th is the power included to overcome the problem of unstable links due to channel fluctuations [9]. In order to find the optimal path, the value P can be defined as follows: P = max j min i (RE/Power tx ) (2) The optimum route is determined by using the value of P described above. Among all feasible paths, we choose the path with the maximum value P as the optimal route for transmitting data packets. Here RE is the residual energy on the route and Power tx is the transmission power Residual Energy Calculation The residual energy is the remaining energy at every node which is the energy left after the packet transmission. The residual energy RE can be calculated by using the following formula RE = E I E C (t) (3) where E I is the initial energy of a node and E C (t) is energy consumed by a node after time t. Total energy consumption of all nodes is defined as the following equation Here N is denoted as the number of nodes used in the network Operation of Proposed AOMDV TE C = N * Initial Energy RE (4) We have proposed energy aware on-demand routing protocol for choosing energy efficient path. The goal of our proposed AOMDV is to find the optimal route which can reduce the energy consumption of mobile nodes and increase the lifetime of the network. This system discovers the 13

5 Route Selection In route selection phase, when the source node receives the RREPs packets from the neighbour nodes, it starts a timer and collects the RREPs during the period. Then the source node begins to calculate the values P based on the corresponding records in RREPs according to Eq. 2 and choose the path with the maximum value P as the optimal route. Finally, data packets are sent through this path with the transmission power recorded in RREP Route Maintenance When a node finds a failure of route, it will send a route error (RERR) packet to the previous node to indicate the route breakage. The intermediate node which receives this RERR message informs to the source node. Then the source node will remove the corresponding item from the routing table and switch to alternate path. 4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 4.1. Simulation Model and Parameters The system is implemented using NS-2.34 [10] to simulate our proposed algorithm. In our simulation, the channel capacity of mobile hosts is set to the same value: 2 Mbps. The testing is done in a simulation environment which is 1000m x 1000m in area and the simulation time is 200 seconds. The speed is set as 5m/s. The simulated traffic is Constant Bit Rate (CBR). The simulation settings and parameters are summarized in Table 2. Table 2. Simulation parameters Simulator NS-2.34 Routing Protocols Traditional AOMDV, Proposed AOMDV Simulation Time (Sec) 200 sec Simulation Area 1000 m* 1000 m Number of Nodes 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 Transmission Range (m) Mobility Model Maximum Speed Connection Rate Data Packet Size Traffic Source Initial Energy 250 m Random way point 5 m/sec 5 packets/sec 64 bytes CBR 100 Joules 15

6 4.2. Performance Metrics The performance of the proposed AOMDV protocol is compared with that of traditional AOMDV protocol according to the following metrics Average Energy Consumption It is the average energy consumed by all nodes in the network End to End Delay The end to end delay is the average time interval between the generation of a packet at a source node and the successfully delivery of the packet at the destination node Throughput The throughput is the ratio of the data packets received at the destination to the data packets sent out from the sources Performance Results We evaluate the performance of the two protocols in terms of average energy consumption, end to end delay and throughput as the performance metrics. We compare the proposed protocol based on transmission power of nodes and residual energy with traditional AOMDV. Fig. 2 shows that the proposed AOMDV reduces the total energy consumption than conventional AOMDV even the number of nodes are varied. Fig. 2. Average Energy Consumption Comparison In Fig.3, the proposed AOMDV has the lower average end-to-end delay compared to AOMDV with different number of nodes. It outperforms energy efficient communication. 16

7 Fig. 3. Average End-to-End Delay Comparison Fig.4 shows that the proposed AOMDV is better than original AOMDV based on throughput. 5. CONCLUSIONS Fig. 4. Throughput Comparison In this paper, we propose an energy efficient multipath routing protocol for choosing energy efficient path. The proposed algorithm considers transmission power of nodes and residual energy to extend the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption of mobile nodes. This system is provided to reduce energy consumption and end to end delay to improve the network lifetime and throughput. 17

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