ENERGY BASED AODV ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS MESH NETWORK

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1 International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET) Volume 9, Issue 4, July - August 2018, pp , Article ID: IJARET_09_04_007 Available online at ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication ENERGY BASED AODV ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS MESH NETWORK Vijay Singh Chongad E & TC Dept., IET-DAVV, Near Khandwa Road, Indore, India Dhiraj Nitnaware E & TC Dept., IET-DAVV, Near Khandwa Road, Indore, India ABSTRACT In Wireless Mesh networks usually nodes have a limited battery supply for transmitting data packets. In WMN, nodes have operated with continuous electrical supply. When this network works for outdoor applications then this establishment of network is very expensive.to avoid this type of fixed energy, solar energy, wind energy and other renewable energy source can be used. This renewable energy sources is called Green Energy.The goal of this paper is to study and perform energy based routing protocol for WMN in green environment. The proposed work comprises the routes and network survivability. In this paper, we present the energy based routing protocol (EBRP) which uses flooding delay method to improve the existing AODV routing protocol. For the performance evaluation, packet delivery ratio, throughput, remaining energy, end to end delay were analyzed using NS-2.35 simulator by varying number of nodes and simulation time. EBRP outperformed AODV. Key words: AODV, EBRP, Green Energy, Wireless Mesh Network, NS Cite this Article: Vijay Singh Chongad and Dhiraj Nitnaware, Energy Based AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Network. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology, 9(4), 2018, pp INTRODUCTION Wireless Mesh Network denotes to well interconnection between nodes and devices. Mesh network contains gateways, mesh routers and mesh clients. Nodes have less frequent mobility, if situation occurs of constant and frequent movement in nodes then time consumption will become more in updating routes. Topology used is more static which meets the routes computation and data delivery to destination. This is the type of wireless ad hoc network where low-mobility occurs. It also sometimes depends on static node to pretend it like a gateway. Laptops, phones and other wireless devices are mesh clients. Mesh router works as traffic forwarding to and from gateway and this all needs Internet connection for working. Mesh network provided reliable network with offering redundancy. If any of the nodes fails to operate then the remaining continues to operate which maintains communication among 77

2 Energy Based AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Network intermediate nodes. In some applications it is necessary to deliver more data packets in shorter time and with higher route lifetime. This can be achieved if the participating nodes have maximum node energy for efficient communication. Nodes which have a maximum energy are participating for longer time. Mesh network consist of mobile devices or fixed devices. It provides most of the applications similar to wireless ad-hoc network. WMN is used in emergency situations, surveillance, high-speed applications and many more. Wireless mesh networks are used by most of the military force to connect their computers in battlefields. It is also used to exchange files even in the condition of lacking internet connection. AODV routing protocol is not consider energy consumption in the network. It selects minimum hop count [7] which is not always finest path. If same route is being used for minimum hop count, nodes energy with these routes will be consumed quickly and some idle paths do not used by routing protocol. This paper studies the energy based AODV protocol for energy efficient route selection. 2. RELATED WORK YU Yinpeng et. al. in [1] proposed about Energy-Efficient Survivable Routing Protocol and this technique is based on solar and wind energy for power supply. This technique works in green wireless mesh network. Author proposed this to improve performance of traditional routing protocol (AODV) for energy efficient route selection. This paper proposes hop penalty strategy and flooding delay strategy. For performance evaluation of Energy-Efficient Survivable Routing Protocol, Qualnet 5.02 network simulator is used. It improves network survivability and reduces energy depletion nodes. Beak J. et. al. proposed a new video transport protocol for multicast agents in WMNs [2]. This protocol reduces overhead and gives reliable communication for multicast application. Ohayan et. al. present an approach to perform real-time application such as voice and video [3]. This approach provides distributed reservations of time slots between the stations sharing the WLAN. Mogaibel et. al. [4] proposed a channel reservation scheme which gives a high throughput path for the gateway traffic by using multi-radio mesh router. Hou et. al. proposed a new path weight which defines the available path bandwidth information [5]. With the help of this information each node takes a proper packet forwarding decision. Zhang et. al. have proposed a neighbor coverage-based probabilistic rebroadcast protocol for reducing overhead in mobile ad hoc networks [MANETs] [6]. This protocol provides a rebroadcast delay to find out the rebroadcast order. This gives more accurate additional coverage ratio by sensing neighbor coverage knowledge. This protocol defines a rebroadcast probability with the combination of additional coverage ratio and connectivity factor. Changqing et. al. [7] proposed a minimum energy consumption algorithm for control of routing, rate and power in multi-hop energy renewable WMNs. In this paper a weighted Dijkstra s shortest path algorithm is used for efficient routing. 3. WORKING OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS Here we discussed the working of AODV and EBRP protocol Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) It is reactive routing protocols which construct routes only when they are needed. It uses two processes to find and maintain routes: the route discovery process and route maintenance process. When a node requires a route to the destination, it initiates a route discovery process within the network. This process finished once a route found. Route maintenance is the process of handling route requests generated. All the packets are being sent to the destination 78

3 Vijay Singh Chongad and Dhiraj Nitnaware once the route is proven. When link is broken the nodes in the network try to detect link breaks on the proven routes. Finding the routes purely on-demand makes AODV a very useful and desired algorithm for MANETs Energy Based Routing Protocol (EBRP) This protocol is based on Flooding delay method. Nodes which have a remaining energy is less than the threshold value is being delayed for a period of time to broadcast messages. Flooding forward RREQ packets is being delayed by this method if the node is high-risk in network. When node forwards RREQ packets, it must read the value of remaining energy firstly. The remaining energy of node is being compared with the threshold value of the remaining energy. The protocol can know whether this node is high-risk and determine when to flood RREQ packets after a period of time. The delay time is defined as follow: T= T r.* 0.01s, e i /e t > E (1) T= (1- e i /e t )* T c, e i /e t < E (2) Where E is the threshold of remaining energy in node and T r is a decimal value obeying random distribution of [0, 1]. T c is the delay constant. In this paper E is set as 25 unit and T c is set as 0.05 second. Figure.1 Energy Based Routing Selection (Flooding Delay Method) Fig. 1 shows the energy based routing selection process. Initial energy of node is set as 100 units. Initially source S sends RREQ packets to its neighbors A, B and C. A, B and C receive the RREQ packets. Neighbors B and C has remaining energy less than threshold value 25 unit then this node will delay the flooding forward RREQ packets to its neighbors. Next C forwards the RREQ packet to its neighbors E and F from which E is selected. E forwards RREQ packet to its neighbors I and J. node I will delay the RREQ packet because it has remaining energy less than threshold value. J is selected for forwarding the packets. Now J forwards packet to its neighbor node D which is destination of the network. It sends the RREP packet to the source through the selected nodes. Nodes (S-C-E-J-D) are selected for transmitting the data packets to the destination

4 Energy Based AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Network 4. SIMULATION RESULT AND ANALYSIS This paper uses NS-2.35 network simulator to investigate the performance of ESRP and AODV. Simulation network consist of 50 nodes of mesh router with following performance parameters: Packet Delivery Ratio: Packet delivery ratio is defined as the ratio of received packets by the receiver and generated packets by the source. Throughput: Throughput refers to how much data can be transferred from source node to destination node in a given amount of time. It is used to measure performance of network connection. Remaining Energy: Remaining energy defines as the energy left after completion of the entire routing process of the network. End to End Delay: End to End delay is defined as average time taken by data packets to reach destination with inclusion of all delays Packet Delivery Ratio Figure 2 PDR of AODV and EBRP Vs No. of nodes and Simulation time Fig. 2a shows the packet delivery ratio of EBRP and AODV by varying number of nodes (10-50). It is observed that the PDR of EBRP is better than the existing AODV protocol. This is due to the fact that route selection is based on remaining energy of nodes. Fig. 2b shows the performance of PDR with varying simulation time (50-250). It is observed that PDR value of EBRP is better than AODV. This is due to the fact that EBRP makes a routing metric on the basis of remaining energy whereas AODV uses minimum hops for routing metric. With increasing simulation time number of nodes decreases which have remaining energy greater than threshold value. In AODV same path is used to transfer packets and some idle path do not efficiently used which wastes the energy of nodes in this path. This will increase the load for these nodes. This condition may lead to local congestions of the network

5 Vijay Singh Chongad and Dhiraj Nitnaware 4.2. Throughput Figure 3 Throughput of AODV and EBSR Vs No. of nodes and Simulation time Fig. 3a illustrates the result for throughput with varying number of nodes. It is found that throughput of EBRP is better than AODV as in case of EBRP, number of nodes with energy exhaustion reduces therefore data error and link breakage is not exist in the channel. This results in increased network survivability hence more data packets can be sent to destination in a given time. While fig. 3b illustrates the result for throughput as a function of simulation time. It is found that EBRP outperformed than AODV Remaining Energy Figure 4 Remaining Energy of AODV and EBSR Vs No. of nodes and Simulation time Fig. 4a shows average remaining energy as a function of number of nodes. It is found that average remaining energy of the network is greater in EBRP as compared to AODV as the number of nodes increases. Fig. 4b depicts the remaining energy with varying simulation time. It is observed that remaining energy of EBRP is better than AODV. EBRP offers more routes for transmission whereas AODV uses multiple routes for same path. With increasing simulation time some node has become energy depleted and network will be divided into pieces. This may lead to become network disconnected

6 Energy Based AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Network 4.4. End to End Delay The average end to end delay with the number of nodes is given in fig. 5a. It is observed that delay in EBRP is increasing as compared to AODV. This is due to the fact that reduction in number of nodes which have remaining energy greater than threshold value. EBRP protocol finds a route with many hops to avoid nodes with minimum remaining energy. This results in increased end to end delay. Fig. 5b shows end to end delay as a function of increasing simulation time. It is found that the end to end delay is greater in EBRP as compared to AODV. In case of EBRP more number of hop count provided to send dada packet also longer path is traversed by EBRP. Figure 5 End to End Delay of AODV and EBSR Vs No. of nodes and Simulation time 5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE Based on the simulation result, we conclude that proposed EBRP protocol perform better than conventional AODV routing protocol. EBRP gives better performance in terms of PDR, throughout and energy consumption but suffer with issue of poor end to end delay. It consume more time in transmit in comparison to AODV. I future, we focused to improve transmission time by maintaining energy drain as low as possible. REFERENCES [1] Yu Yinpeng, Peng Yuhuai, Liu Yejun, Guo Lei, Song Meng, Survivable Routing Protocol for Green Wireless Mesh Networks Based on Energy Efficiency, China Communications, 11, August 2014, [2] J Beak, P S Fisher, M JO, A Reliable Overlay Video Transport Protocol for multicast agents in wireless mesh networks, International Journal of Communication system, 2012, 25(5): [3] R Ohayon, Virtual Reservation Scheme for Supporting CBR Multimedia Services with Strict QoS Performance over WLAN and Wireless Mesh, International Journal of Communication Systems, 2012, 25 (5): [4] H Mogaibel, M Othman, S Subramanium, On-Demand Channel Reservation Scheme for Common Traffic in Wireless Mesh Networks, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2012, 35(4),

7 Vijay Singh Chongad and Dhiraj Nitnaware [5] Hou Ronghui, Lui Kingshan, F Baker, Hop-by-hop Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Band with Guarantees, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2012, 11(2), [6] Zhang Xinmming, Ang Enbo, Xia Jingjing, A Neighbor Coverage-Based Probabilistic Rebroadcast for Reducing routing overhead in Mobile ad hoc Networking, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2013, 12(3), [7] Luo Changqing, Guo Shengyong, Guo Song, T. Laurence Yang, Min Geyong, Xie Xia, Green Communication in Energy Renewable Wireless Mesh Networks: Routing, Rate Control and Power Allocation, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2014, 25(12), [8] V. Lakshmi Praba, A. Mercy Rani, Efficient Neighbor Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks, International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics, 1(1), 2013, ISSN: [9] Jaspreet Singh, Kartik Sharma, Energy Efficient AODV routing protocol For Mobile Adhoc Network, International Journal of Engineering And Computer Science, 04, 2015, [10] Ahmed, Hanan, Osman, AODV Routing Protocol Working Process, Journal of Convergence Information Technology, 10(02), 2015,

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