2) Increasingly, voice, video, and data communications are all based on Internet technology. 2) Answer: True False

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1 Exam Name TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 1) Telephone networks are fundamentally different from computer networks. 1) 2) Increasingly, voice, video, and data communications are all based on Internet technology. 2) 3) Firms in the past used two fundamentally different types of networks: telephone networks and computer networks. 4) Due to continuing telecommunications deregulation and information technology innovation, telephone and computer networks are slowly converging into a single digital network using shared Internet-based standards and equipment. 5) Increasingly, voice and data communication as well as Internet access are taking place over broadband wireless platforms, such as cell phones, handheld digital devices, and PCs in wireless networks. 6) Each computer on the network contains a network interface device called a network operating card (NOC). 7) Contemporary digital networks and the Internet are based on four key technologies: client/server computing, the use of packet switching, the development of widely used communications standards and PC operating systems. 8) Pocket switching is a method of slicing digital messages into parcels called pockets, sending the pockets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling the pockets once they arrive at their destinations. 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Packet switching makes much less efficient use of the communications capacity of a network. 9) 10) TCP refers to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which is responsible for the delivery of packets and includes the disassembling and reassembling of packets during transmission. 11) IP refers to the Internet Protocol (IP), establishes a connection between the computers, sequences the transfer of packets, and acknowledges the packets sent. 12) A digital signal is represented by a continuous waveform that passes through a communications medium; analog signals are used for voice communication. 10) 11) 12)

2 13) A analog signal is a discrete, binary waveform, rather than a continuous waveform. 13) 14) A modem is a device that translates digital signals from a computer into analog form so that they can be transmitted over analog telephone lines. 15) A local-area network (LAN) is designed to connect personal computers and other digital devices within a half-mile or 500-metre radius. 14) 15) 16) The most common LAN operating systems are Windows, Linux, and Novell. 16) 17) Ethernet is the dominant LAN standard at the physical network level, specifying the physical medium to carry signals between computers; access control rules; and a standardized set of bits used to carry data over the system. 18) A peer-to-peer network treats all processors equally and is used primarily in small networks with 10 or fewer users. 19) Sometimes LANs are described in terms of the way their components are connected together, or their topology. 20) In a bus topology, one station transmits signals, which travel in both directions along a single transmission segment. 21) Wide-area networks (WAN) is a network that spans a metropolitan area, usually a city and its major suburbs. 22) Metropolitan-area network (MAN)span broad geographical distances entire regions, states, continents, or the entire globe. 23) Twisted wire consists of strands of copper wire twisted in pairs and is an older type of transmission medium. 24) Microwave systems, both terrestrial and celestial, transmit high-frequency radio signals through the atmosphere and are widely used for high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point communication. 25) The range of frequencies that can be accommodated on a particular telecommunications channel is called its bandwidth. 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25)

3 26) An Internet service provider (ISP) is a commercial organization with a temporary connection to the Internet that sells permanent connections to retail subscribers. 27) Digital subscriber line (DSL) provided by cable television vendors use digital cable coaxial lines to deliver high-speed Internet access to homes and businesses. 28) The domain name is the English-like name that corresponds to the unique 32-bit numeric IP address for each computer connected to the Internet. 26) 27) 28) 29) To connect two computers together in the same office, you must have a computer network. 29) 30) An NOS must reside on a dedicated server computer in order to manage a network. 30) 31) A hub is a networking device that connects network components and are used to filter and forward data to specified destinations on the network. 32) In a client/server network, a network server provides every connected client with an address so it can be found by others on the network. 31) 32) 33) Central large mainframe computing has largely replaced client/server computing. 33) 34) Circuit switching makes much more efficient use of the communications capacity of a network than does packet switching. 35) A protocol is a standard set of rules and procedures for the control of communications in a network. 36) Two computers using TCP/IP can communicate even if they are based on different hardware and software platforms. 37) In a ring topology, one station transmits signals, which travel in both directions along a single transmission segment. 38) Coaxial cable is similar to that used for cable television and consists of thickly insulated copper wire. 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) Fiber-optic cable is more expensive and harder to install than wire media. 39)

4 40) The number of cycles per second that can be sent through any telecommunications medium is measured in kilobytes. 41) The success of the Internet is in part due to its design as an infinitely scalable network capable of handling millions of users. 40) 41) 42) VoIP technology delivers video information in digital form using packet switching. 42) 43) Web 2.0 is the collaborative effort led by the World Wide Web Consortium to add a layer of meaning atop the existing Web to reduce the amount of human involvement in searching for and processing Web information. 44) Wi-Fi enables users to freely roam from hotspot to hotspot even if the hotspot is using different Wi-Fi network services. 43) 44) 45) WiMax has a wireless access range of up to 300 feet. 45) 46) RFID has been exceptionally popular because of its low implementation costs. 46) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 47) A device that acts as a connection point between computers and can filter and forward data to a 47) specified destination is called a A) switch. B) hub. C) NIC. D) router. 48) The Internet is based on which three key technologies? 48) A) TCP/IP, HTML, and HTTP B) Client/server computing, packet switching, and HTTP C) Client/server computing, packet switching, and the development of communications standards for linking networks and computers D) TCP/IP, HTTP, and packet switching 49) The method of slicing digital messages into parcels, transmitting them along different communication paths, and reassembling them at their destinations is called A) ATM. B) packet switching. C) packet routing. D) multiplexing. 49) 50) The telephone system is an example of a network. 50) A) circuit-switched B) peer-to-peer C) packet-switched D) wireless

5 51) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of packet switching? 51) A) Packets include data for checking transmission errors. B) Packets are routed through many different paths. C) Packet switching requires point-to-point circuits. D) Packets travel independently of each other. 52) In TCP/IP, IP is responsible for 52) A) moving packets over the network. B) sequencing the transfer of packets. C) disassembling and reassembling of packets during transmission. D) establishing an Internet connection between two computers. 53) In a telecommunications network architecture, a protocol is 53) A) the main computer in a telecommunications network. B) a communications service for microcomputer users. C) a device that handles the switching of voice and data in a local area network. D) a standard set of rules and procedures for control of communications in a network. Answer: D 54) The four layers of the TCP/IP reference model are 54) A) physical layer, application layer, Internet layer, and the network interface layer. B) application layer, transport layer, Internet layer, and the network interface layer. C) physical layer, application layer, transport layer, and the network interface layer. D) application layer, hardware layer, Internet layer, and the network interface layer. 55) Which signal types are represented by a continuous waveform? 55) A) optical B) laser C) analog D) digital 56) To use an analog telephone system for sending digital data, you must us 56) A) a router. B) twisted wire. C) a modem. D) DSL. 57) Which type of network is used to connect digital devices within a half-mile or 500-meter radius? 57) A) MAN B) LAN C) microwave D) WAN 58) Which type of network treats all processors equally, and allows peripheral devices to be shared without going to a separate server? A) peer-to-peer B) ring C) LAN D) wireless 59) Which type of network would be most appropriate for a business that comprised three employees and a manager located in the same office space, whose primary need is to share documents? A) campus area network B) domain-based LAN C) wireless network in infrastructure mode D) peer-to-peer network Answer: D 58) 59)

6 60) In a bus network 60) A) multiple hubs are organized in a hierarchy. B) signals are broadcast in both directions to the entire network. C) messages pass from computer to computer in a loop. D) signals are broadcast to the next station. 61) All network components connect to a single hub in a network. 61) A) bus B) star C) peer-to-peer D) domain 62) The most common Ethernet topology is 62) A) ring. B) bus. C) star. D) mesh. 63) A network that spans a city, and sometimes its major suburbs as well, is called a 63) A) LAN. B) WAN. C) MAN. D) CAN. 64) A network that covers entire geographical regions is most commonly referred to as a(n): 64) A) local area network. B) wide area network. C) intranet. D) peer-to-peer network. 65) work(s) by using radio waves to communicate with radio antennas placed within adjacent geographic areas. A) Satellites B) WANs C) Microwaves D) Cell phones Answer: D 65) 66) Bandwidth is the 66) A) number of frequencies that can be broadcast through a medium. B) difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that can be accommodated on a single channel. C) total number of bytes that can be sent through a medium per second. D) number of cycles per second that can be sent through a medium. 67) The total amount of digital information that can be transmitted through any telecommunications medium is measured in A) baud. B) gigaflops. C) bps. D) Hertz. 67) 68) Digital subscriber lines 68) A) operate over coaxial lines to deliver Internet access. B) have up to twenty-four 64-Kbps channels. C) operate over existing telephone lines to carry voice, data, and video. D) are very-high-speed data lines typically leased from long-distance telephone companies. 69) T lines 69) A) are very-high-speed data lines typically leased from long-distance telephone companies. B) operate over existing telephone lines to carry voice, data, and video.

7 C) have up to twenty-four 64-Kbps channels. D) operate over coaxial lines to deliver Internet access. 70) Which protocol is the Internet based on? 70) A) TCP/IP B) FTP C) HTTP D) packet-switching 71) What service converts IP addresses into more recognizable alphanumeric names? 71) A) HTTP B) DNS C) IP D) HTML 72) The child domain of the root is the 72) A) second-level domain. B) host name. C) top-level domain. D) domain extension. 73) In the domain name " what are the root, top-level, second-level, and third-level domains, respectively? A) ".", myspace, blogging, com B) ".", com, blogging, myspace C) " com, blogging, myspace D) " myspace, blogging, com 73) 74) Which organization helps define the overall structure of the Internet? 74) A) None (no one "owns" the Internet) B) IAB C) W3C D) ICANN 75) IPv6 is being developed in order to 75) A) allow for different levels of service. B) support Internet2. C) create more IP addresses. D) update the packet transmission protocols for higher bandwidth. 76) Which of the following services enables logging on to one computer system and working on another? A) LISTSERV B) Telnet C) World Wide Web D) FTP 76) 77) Instant messaging is a type of service. 77) A) cellular B) chat C) Web D) wireless 78) The need in some cases for employees to have access to sexually explicit material on the Internet, such as medical researchers, suggests that companies A) need to base their Internet use policies on the needs of the organization and culture. B) cannot restrict Internet use. C) may need to maintain a database of acceptable Web sites. D) need specialized software to determine which types of material are acceptable. 78)

8 79) integrate(s) disparate channels for voice communications, data communications, instant messaging, , and electronic conferencing into a single experience. A) Virtual private networks B) Intranets C) Wireless networks D) Unified communications Answer: D 79) 80) A VPN 80) A) is an encrypted private network configured within a public network. B) provides secure, encrypted communications using Telnet. C) is an Internet-based service for delivering voice communications. D) is more expensive than a dedicated network. 81) Web browser software requests Web pages from the Internet using which protocol? 81) A) HTTP B) HTML C) URL D) DNS 82) Together, a protocol prefix, a domain name, a directory path, and a document name, are called a(n) A) uniform resource locator. B) third level domain. C) root domain. D) unified resource locator. 82) 83) The open-source Web server that controls 70 percent of the market is 83) A) Microsoft IIS. B) Apache HTTP server. C) ASP.net. D) Netscape. 84) What technology allows people to have content pulled from Web sites and fed automatically to their computers? A) FTP B) HTTP C) RSS D) Bluetooth 85) To keep internal data secure, a company employing an extranet must be sure to put a in place A) router B) server C) switch D) firewall Answer: D 86) A network that connects authorized customers, suppliers, and other business partners to portions of a firm's internal network is called a(n) A) virtual private network. B) enterprise network. C) extranet. D) intranet. 84) 85) 86) 87) Which generation of network are wireless cellular phone systems entering? 87) A) 2.5G B) 3G C) 4G D) 3.5G 88) CDMA 88) A) is the major European digital cellular standard.

9 B) transmits over several frequencies. C) is more expensive than GSM. D) uses the 1.9 GHz band. 89) The most appropriate wireless networking standard for creating PANs is 89) A) Bluetooth. B) I-mode. C) IEEE b. D) WiFi. 90) Bluetooth can be used to link up to devices within a 10-meter area using low-power, radio-based communication. A) ten B) six C) four D) eight Answer: D 90) 91) The Wi-Fi a standard can transmit up to 91) A) 54 Mbps in the 2.4-GHz frequency range. B) 11 Mbps in the 2.4-GHz frequency range. C) 722 Kbps in the 2.4-GHz frequency range. D) 54 Mbps in the 5-GHz frequency range. Answer: D 92) One or more access points positioned on a ceiling, wall, or other strategic spot in a public place to provide maximum wireless coverage for a specific area are referred to as A) hot points. B) wireless hubs. C) hotspots. D) touch points. 92) 93) The IEEE standard for the WiMax is 93) A) IEEE B) IEEE C) IEEE D) IEEE ) The WiMax standard can transmit up to a distance of approximately 94) A) 30 miles. B) 30 meters. C) 500 meters. D) 5 miles. 95) Passive RFID tags 95) A) have a range of several feet. B) enable data to be rewritten and modified. C) have their own power source. D) are used in automated toll-collection systems. 96) are very simple devices that connect network components, sending a packet of data to all other connected devices. A) Hubs B) NOS C) Router D) Switch 97) A has more intelligence than a hub and can filter and forward data to a specified destination on the network. A) NOS B) router C) hubs D) switch Answer: D 96) 97) 98) A is a special communications processor used to route packets of data through diff erent

10 networks 98), ensuring that the data sent gets to the correct address. A) hubs B) NOS C) switch D) router Answer: D 99) The routes and manages communications on the network and coordinates network resources. A) NOS B) switch C) router D) hubs 100) John is evaluating the new system of computing that has just been installed in his firm. The new computing has extended computing to various departments, workgroups, factory floors, and other parts of the business that could not be served by the centralized architecture that was replaced with this new system. A) mainframe B) customer/client C) PDA D) client/server Answer: D 101) The enables client application programs to access the other layers and defines the protocols that applications use to exchange data. One of these application protocols is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is used to transfer Web page files. A) application layer B) internet layer C) network interface layer D) transport layer 102) Bob is trying to decide to decide which type of physical transmission media to install that his LAN needs. Bob is in an older building in the downtown core of the city. He needs speeds up to 1 Gbps and the network needs to have a maximum run of 60 metres. Which type of transmission media is Bob going to install? A) coaxial cable B) fiber optic cable C) twisted wire D) microwave systems 103) Larry is trying to decide to decide which type of physical transmission media to install for his LAN needs. Larry's firm is in a very large building. He needs speeds up to 1 Gbps and the network needs to have a maximum run of 140 metres. Which type of transmission media is Larry going to install? A) twisted wire B) coaxial cable C) microwave systems D) fiber optic cable 104) Sally is the head CTV news in Canada. CTV is having trouble with their network because they have too much data to transfer for the current physical transmission media that is in place. Sally knows that much of the data they transfer is video and lots of it. Which type of media should Sally consider as they perform this upgrade? A) fiber optic cable B) coaxial cable 99) 100) 101) 102) 103) 104)

11 C) microwave systems D) twisted wire 105) Gordon is wondering what is the best physical transmission media to use for high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point communication that his firm needs. Which media should Gordon consider for his situation? A) microwave systems B) fiber optic cable C) coaxial cable D) twisted wire 106) Internet data traffic is carried over transcontinental high-speed backbone networks that generally operate today in the range of 45 Mbps to 2.5 Gbps. These trunk lines are typically owned by. A) network service providers B) regional telephone and cable companies C) coaxial cable D) ISP 107) Local connection lines are owned by regional that connect retail users in homes and businesses to the Internet. A) network service providers B) ISP C) coaxial cable D) telephone and cable television companies Answer: D 105) 106) 107) 108) The regional networks lease access to. 108) A) ISPs, private companies, and government institutions. B) network service providers C) coaxial cable D) telephone and cable television companies 109) Network neutrality is the idea that Internet service providers must allow customers. 109) A) unequal access to content and applications, regardless of the source or nature of the content B) unequal access to content and applications, depending on the source or nature of the content C) equal access to content and applications, regardless of the source or nature of the content D) equal access to content and applications, depending on the source or nature of the content 110) Canadian companies have the. 110) A) legal right to monitor what employees are doing with non-company equipment during business hours B) legal right to monitor what customer are doing with non-company equipment during business hours C) legal right to monitor what employees are doing with company equipment during business hours D) ethical right to monitor what employees are doing with company equipment during business hours. 111) Based on your reading of the examples in the chapter, what would be the best use of RFID for a busi ness?

12 111) A) enabling client communication B) supply chain management C) transactions D) lowering network costs SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 112) The is special software that routes and manages communications on the 112) network and coordinates networks resources. Answer: network operating system 113) Firms in the past used two fundamentally different types of : telephone networks and computer networks. Answer: networks 114) Due to continuing telecommunications and information technology innovation, telephone and computer networks are slowly converging into a single digital network using shared Internet-based standards and equipment. Answer: deregulation 115) Increasingly, voice and data as well as Internet access are taking place over broadband wireless platforms, such as cell phones, handheld digital devices, and PCs in wireless networks. Answer: communication 116) If you had to connect the computers for two or more employees together in the same office, you would need a computer. Answer: network 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) Each computer on the network contains a network interface device called a. 117) Answer: network interface card (NIC) 118) Contemporary digital networks and the Internet are based on three key technologies:, the use of packet switching, and the development of widely used communications standards for linking disparate networks and computers. Answer: client/server computing 119) Packet switching makes much more use of the communications capacity of a network. Answer: efficient 120) A is a set of rules and procedures governing transmission of information between two points in a network. Answer: protocol 118) 119) 120) 121) TCP/IP uses a suite of, the main ones being TCP and IP. 121) Answer: protocols 122) establishes a connection between the computers, sequences the transfer of packets, and acknowledges the packets sent. Answer: TCP 122) 123) IP refers to the Internet Protocol (IP), which is responsible for the of packets and includes the

13 disassem bling and reassemb ling of packets during transmis sion. 123) Answer: delivery 124) The layer is responsible for addressing, routing, and packaging data packets called IP datagrams. Answer: Internet 125) An is represented by a continuous waveform that passes through a communications medium; analog signals are used for voice communication. Answer: analog signal 124) 125) 126) A is a discrete, binary waveform, rather than a continuous waveform. 126) Answer: digital signal 127) A is a device that translates digital signals from a computer into analog form so that they can be transmitted over analog telephone lines. Answer: modem 128) A is designed to connect personal computers and other digital devices within a half-mile or 500-metre radius. Answer: local-area network (LAN) 127) 128) 129) The most common LAN systems are Windows, Linux, and Novell. 129) Answer: operating 130) is the dominant LAN standard at the physical network level, specifying the physical medium to carry signals between computers. Answer: Ethernet 131) A network treats all processors equally and is used primarily in small networks with 10 or fewer users. Answer: peer-to-peer 132) In a, one station transmits signals, which travel in both directions along a single transmission segment. Answer: bus topology 133) span broad geographical distances entire regions, states, continents, or the entire globe. Answer: Wide-area networks (WANs) 134) A is a network that spans a metropolitan area, usually a city and its major suburbs. Its geographic scope falls between a WAN and a LAN. Answer: metropolitan-area network (MAN) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134)

14 135) consists of strands of copper wire twisted in pairs and is an older type of transmission medium. Answer: Twisted wire 136), similar to that used for cable television, consists of thickly insulated copper wire, which can transmit a larger volume of data than twisted wire. oaxial cable 137) consists of bound strands of clear glass fibre, each the thickness of a human hair. Answer: Fibre optic cable 138) The range of frequencies that can be accommodated on a particular telecommunications channel is called its. Answer: bandwidth 139) systems, both terrestrial and celestial, transmit high-frequency radio signals through the atmosphere and are widely used for high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point communication. Answer: Microwave 140) An is a commercial organization with a permanent connection to the Internet that sells temporary connections to retail subscribers. Answer: Internet service provider (ISP) 141) technologies operate over existing telephone lines to carry voice, data, and video at transmission rates ranging from 385 Kbps all the way up to 9 Mbps. Answer: Digital subscriber line (DSL) 142) connections provided by cable television vendors use digital cable coaxial lines to deliver high-speed Internet access to homes and businesses. able Internet 143) The is the English-like name that corresponds to the unique 32-bit numeric IP address for each computer connected to the Internet. Answer: domain name 144) technology delivers voice information in digital form using packet switching, avoiding the tolls charged by local and long-distance telephone networks. Answer: Voice over IP (VoIP) 145) When employees use or the Web at employer facilities or with employer equipment, anything they do, including anything illegal, the company s name. Answer: carries 146) Companies that allow employees to use personal accounts at work face legal and regulatory trouble if they do not those messages. Answer: retain 147) Canadian companies have the legal right to what employees are doing with company equipment during business hours. 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147)

15 Answer: monitor 148) A is a secure, encrypted, private network that has been configured within a public network to take advantage of the economies of scale and management facilities of large networks Answer: virtual private network (VPN) 149) Prior to the development of, computer networks used leased, dedicated telephone circuits to communicate with other computers in remote locations. Answer: packet switching 150) A(n) signal is a discrete, binary waveform that transmits data coded into two discrete states such as 1-bits and 0-bits. Answer: digital 148) 149) 150) 151) is the manner in which the components of a network are connected. 151) Answer: Topology 152) is the dominant LAN standard at the physical network level. 152) Answer: Ethernet 153) A(n) is a commercial organization with a permanent connection to the Internet that sells temporary connections to retail subscribers. Answer: Internet service provider 154) The backbone networks of the Internet are typically owned by long-distance telephone companies called. Answer: network service providers 153) 154) 155) A(n) is software for locating and managing stored Web pages. 155) Answer: Web server 156) A(n) is a box consisting of a radio receiver/transmitter and antennas that links to a wired network, router, or hub. Answer: access point 156) ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 157) How does packet switching work? Answer: Packet switching is a method of slicing digital messages into parcels called packets, sending the packets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling the packets once they arrive at their destinations. Packet switching makes much more efficient use of the communications capacity of a network than did circuit-switching. In packet-switched networks, messages are first broken down into small fixed bundles of data called packets. The packets include information for directing the packet to the right address and for checking transmission errors along with the data. The packets are transmitted over various communications channels using routers, each packet traveling independently. Packets of data originating at one source will be routed through many different paths and networks before being reassembled into the original message when they reach their destinations. 158) Describe the principal components of telecommunications networks and key networking technologies? simple network consists of two or more connected computers. Basic network components include computers, network interfaces, a connection medium, network operating system software, and either a

16 hub or a switch. mobile cellular communication, wireless local-area networks, videoconferencing systems, a corporate The networking Web site, intranets, extranets, and an array of local and wide-area networks, including the Internet. infrastructure for a Contemporary networks have been shaped by the rise of client/server computing, the use of packet large company switching, and the adoption of Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) as a includes the universal communications standard for linking disparate networks and computers, including the traditional Internet. Protocols provide a common set of rules that enable communication among diverse telephone system, components in a telecommunications network. 159) Murray is trying to decide what type of telecommunication transmission media and what type of network he might use at the University of Lethbridge. Murray goes to the IS faculty to learn about these subjects in a general way. Describe to Murray what the main telecommunications transmission media and type of network the university would use. Answer: The principal physical transmission media are twisted copper telephone wire, coaxial copper cable, fibre optic cable, and wireless transmission. Twisted wire enables companies to use existing wiring for telephone systems for digital communication although it is relatively slow. Fibre optic and coaxial cable are used for high-volume transmission but are expensive to install. Microwave and communications satellites are used for wireless communication over long distances. Local-area networks (LANs) connect PCs and other digital devices together within a 500-metre radius and are used today for many corporate computing tasks. Network components may be connected together using a star, bus, or ring topology. Wide-area networks (WANs) span broad geographical distances, ranging from several kilometres to continents, and are private networks that are independently managed. Metropolitan-area networks (MANs) span a single urban area. Digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies, cable Internet connections, and T1 lines are often used for high-capacity Internet connections. Cable Internet connections provide high-speed access to the Web or corporate intranets at speeds of up to 10 Mbps. A T1 line supports a data transmission rate of Mbps. 160) Linda has been reading in the popular press all about RFID and wireless sensor networks. She is in the livestock business and wonders if there might be some applications of this technology in her industry. Linda first wants to understand the basics of these technologies. Describe for her why radio frequency identification (RFID) and wireless sensor networks can be valuable for business. Answer: Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems provide a powerful technology for tracking the movement of goods by using tiny tags with embedded data about an item and its location. RFID readers read the radio signals transmitted by these tags and pass the data over a network to a computer for processing. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are networks of interconnected wireless sensing and transmitting devices that are embedded into the physical environment to provide measurements of many points over large spaces. 161) Identify the layers of the Department of Defense reference model for TCP/IP, and describe how this model works. Answer: The application layer enables client application programs to access the other layers and defines the protocols that applications use to exchange data. One of these application protocols is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is used to transfer Web page files. The transport layer is responsible for providing the application layer with communication and packet services. This layer includes TCP and other protocols. The Internet layer is responsible for addressing, routing, and packaging data packets called IP datagrams. The Internet Protocol is one of the protocols used in this layer. At the bottom of the reference model, the network interface layer is responsible for placing packets on and receiving them from the network medium, which could be any networking technology. Data sent from one computer to the other passes downward through all four layers, starting with the sending computer's application layer and passing through the network interface layer. After the data reach the recipient host computer, they travel up the layers and are reassembled into a format the receiving computer can use. If the receiving computer finds a damaged packet, it asks the sending computer to retransmit it. This process is reversed when the receiving computer responds.

17 162) You have been hired by a tax preparation firm to set up a network connecting several new branches in a metropolitan area. What type of network hardware and transmission media will you choose and why? ecause of security issues, I wouldn't choose wireless transmission. The offices themselves can each have an Ethernet-based LAN, and they can connect to each other and to an Intranet via a secure, encrypted VPN over the Internet. Network hardware anticipated is: coaxial cable, network server, a switch. Because the LANs will be connected through a VPN, a router may not be needed. In anticipation of the need for a lot of data transmission, the connection to the Internet will be through cable modems. A firewall, or several, for security purposes is anticipated. 163) You have been hired by a small new Web design firm to set up a network for its single office location. The network is primarily needed for exchanging files, accessing and managing beta Web sites on their Web server, and connecting to the Internet. The firm hires many freelancers who come into the office on an ad hoc basis and it does not have a lot of money to spend on infrastructure. What type of network will you recommend? Answer: I would recommend a mixed Ethernet and wireless network. The Ethernet LAN would connect the Web servers and primary workstations and connect via cable service to the Internet. Freelancers could connect wirelessly via access points. 164) What types of capabilities does the Internet provide businesses and what Internet protocols or technologies support these? Which have proven the most valuable to businesses thus far? Answer: The Internet provides ways to transfer files (FTP), work on remote computers (Telnet), distribute information in the form of pages (The Web), have real-time text-based conversations (instant messaging, chat), collaborate (wikis), communicate and share data with suppliers (extranets, Web-based applications), conduct group discussions (newsgroups), real-time voice conversations (chat, VOIP), send text messages ( ) and create lower cost networks (TCP/IP, extranets, intranets, VPN). Probably the two most important effects the Internet has had are the effects on network costs and ease of setting up a network using TCP/IP and Internet-based technologies, and , allowing near-instant documented messaging. has been a valuable alternative to post office mail. 165) What are the business advantages of using voice over IP (VoIP) technology? usiness can lower costs by using the Internet to deliver voice information, avoiding the tolls charged by local and long-distance telephone networks. They can lower costs from not having to create a separate telephone network. VOIP enables communication by supporting Internet conference calls using video. VOIP also provides flexibility - phones can be added or moved to different offices without rewiring or reconfiguring the network. 166) Describe and explain the idea of "network neutrality." Are you in favour of network neutrality? Why or why not? Answer: Network neutrality describes the current equal access by users to Internet bandwidth, regardless of the services they are using on the Internet. Network neutrality is the idea that Internet service providers must allow customers equal access to content and applications, regardless of the source or nature of the content. Presently, the Internet is indeed neutral: all Internet traffic is treated equally on a first-come, first-serve basis by Internet backbone owners. The Internet is neutral because it was built on phone lines, which are subject to common carriage' laws. These laws require phone companies to treat all calls and customers equally. For example, someone using the Internet to download large movie files pays the same rate as someone accessing their . Now telecommunications and cable companies want to be able to charge differentiated prices based on the amount of bandwidth consumed by content being delivered over the Internet. Student opinions will vary; one might be: I support network neutrality because the risk of censorship increases when network operators can selectively block or slow access to certain content.

18 167) Describe the current trends and movements in Internet technology and content. Answer: One upcoming change is the move to IPv6, a new addressing scheme that will allow for billions more addresses. Other technological changes are being worked on by Internet2 and Next-Generation Internet (NGI); consortia representing 200 universities, private businesses, and government agencies in the United States that are working on a new, robust, high-bandwidth version of the Internet. A current trend in Internet content is Web 2.0 Web 2.0, second-generation interactive Internet-based services that enable people to collaborate, share information, and create new services online like mashups, blogs, RSS, and wikis. With Web 2.0, the Web is not just a collection of destination sites but a source of data and services that can be combined to create applications users need. Web 2.0 software applications run on the Web itself instead of the desktop and bring the vision of Web-based computing closer to realization. Another potential change or trend in Internet content is the Web 3.0 or Semantic Web, a collaborative effort led by the World Wide Web Consortium to make Web searching more efficient by reducing the amount of human involvement in searching for and processing Web information. The Semantic Web is still in its infancy. Further development requires extensive work to establish specific meanings for data on the Web, categories for classifying the data, and relationships between classification categories. Once some of this work takes place, computers will be able to make more sense of the Web, intelligent agents will be capable of performing sophisticated search tasks, and data in Web pages will be able to be processed automatically. Another technological change can be seen in the way the Internet is being accessed. Mobile wireless broadband Internet access is the fastest-growing form of Internet access in ) How are RFID systems used in inventory control and supply chain management? Answer: In inventory control and supply chain management, RFID systems capture and manage more detailed information about items in warehouses or in production than bar coding systems. If a large number of items are shipped together, RFID systems track each pallet, lot, or even unit item in the shipment. This technology may help companies improve receiving and storage operations by enhancing their ability to "see" exactly what stock is stored in warehouses or on retail store shelves. 169) What are wireless sensor networks? How do they work and what are they used for? Answer: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are networks of interconnected wireless devices that are embedded into the physical environment to provide measurements of many points over large spaces. These devices have built-in processing, storage, and radio frequency sensors and antennas. They are linked into an interconnected network that routes the data they capture to a computer for analysis. These networks range from hundreds to thousands of nodes. Because wireless sensor devices are placed in the field for years at a time without any maintenance or human intervention, they must have very low power requirements and batteries capable of lasting for years. Wireless sensor networks are valuable in areas such as monitoring environmental changes; monitoring traffic or military activity; protecting property; efficiently operating and managing machinery and vehicles; establishing security perimeters; monitoring supply chain management; or detecting chemical, biological, or radiological material.

19 1) TRUE 2) TRUE 3) TRUE 4) TRUE 5) TRUE 6) FALSE 7) FALSE 8) FALSE 9) FALSE 10) FALSE 11) FALSE 12) FALSE 13) FALSE 14) TRUE 15) TRUE 16) TRUE 17) TRUE 18) TRUE 19) TRUE 20) TRUE 21) FALSE 22) FALSE 23) TRUE 24) TRUE 25) TRUE 26) FALSE 27) FALSE 28) FALSE 29) TRUE 30) FALSE 31) FALSE 32) TRUE 33) FALSE 34) FALSE 35) TRUE 36) TRUE 37) FALSE 38) TRUE 39) TRUE 40) FALSE 41) FALSE 42) FALSE 43) FALSE 44) FALSE 45) FALSE 46) FALSE 47) A 48) C 49) B 50) A 51) C

20 52) C 53) D 54) B 55) B 56) C 57) B 58) A 59) D 60) B 61) B 62) B 63) C 64) B 65) D 66) B 67) C 68) C 69) A 70) A 71) B 72) C 73) B 74) B 75) C 76) B 77) B 78) A 79) D 80) A 81) A 82) A 83) B 84) C 85) D 86) C 87) B 88) B 89) A 90) D 91) D 92) C 93) C 94) A 95) A 96) A 97) D 98) D 99) A 100) D 101) A 102) C 103) B

21 104) A 105) A 106) A 107) D 108) A 109) C 110) C 111) B 112) network operating system 113) networks 114) deregulation 115) communication 116) network 117) network interface card (NIC) 118) client/server computing 119) efficient 120) protocol 121) protocols 122) TCP 123) delivery 124) Internet 125) analog signal 126) digital signal 127) modem 128) local-area network (LAN) 129) operating 130) Ethernet 131) peer-to-peer 132) bus topology 133) Wide-area networks (WANs) 134) metropolitan-area network (MAN) 135) Twisted wire 136) Coaxial cable 137) Fibre optic cable 138) bandwidth 139) Microwave 140) Internet service provider (ISP) 141) Digital subscriber line (DSL) 142) Cable Internet 143) domain name 144) Voice over IP (VoIP) 145) carries 146) retain 147) monitor 148) virtual private network (VPN) 149) packet switching 150) digital 151) Topology 152) Ethernet 153) Internet service provider 154) network service providers 155) Web server

22 156) access point 157) Packet switching is a method of slicing digital messages into parcels called packets, sending the packets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling the packets once they arrive at their destinations. Packet switching makes much more efficient use of the communications capacity of a network than did circuit-switching. In packet-switched networks, messages are first broken down into small fixed bundles of data called packets. The packets include information for directing the packet to the right address and for checking transmission errors along with the data. The packets are transmitted over various communications channels using routers, each packet traveling independently. Packets of data originating at one source will be routed through many different paths and networks before being reassembled into the original message when they reach their destinations. 158) A simple network consists of two or more connected computers. Basic network components include computers, network interfaces, a connection medium, network operating system software, and either a hub or a switch. The networking infrastructure for a large company includes the traditional telephone system, mobile cellular communication, wireless local-area networks, videoconferencing systems, a corporate Web site, intranets, extranets, and an array of local and wide-area networks, including the Internet. Contemporary networks have been shaped by the rise of client/server computing, the use of packet switching, and the adoption of Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) as a universal communications standard for linking disparate networks and computers, including the Internet. Protocols provide a common set of rules that enable communication among diverse components in a telecommunications network. 159) The principal physical transmission media are twisted copper telephone wire, coaxial copper cable, fibre optic cable, and wireless transmission. Twisted wire enables companies to use existing wiring for telephone systems for digital communication although it is relatively slow. Fibre optic and coaxial cable are used for high-volume transmission but are expensive to install. Microwave and communications satellites are used for wireless communication over long distances. Local-area networks (LANs) connect PCs and other digital devices together within a 500-metre radius and are used today for many corporate computing tasks. Network components may be connected together using a star, bus, or ring topology. Wide-area networks (WANs) span broad geographical distances, ranging from several kilometres to continents, and are private networks that are independently managed. Metropolitan-area networks (MANs) span a single urban area. Digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies, cable Internet connections, and T1 lines are often used for high-capacity Internet connections. Cable Internet connections provide high-speed access to the Web or corporate intranets at speeds of up to 10 Mbps. A T1 line supports a data transmission rate of Mbps. 160) Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems provide a powerful technology for tracking the movement of goods by using tiny tags with embedded data about an item and its location. RFID readers read the radio signals transmitted by these tags and pass the data over a network to a computer for processing. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are networks of interconnected wireless sensing and transmitting devices that are embedded into the physical environment to provide measurements of many points over large spaces. 161) The application layer enables client application programs to access the other layers and defines the protocols that applications use to exchange data. One of these application protocols is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is used to transfer Web page files. The transport layer is responsible for providing the application layer with communication and packet services. This layer includes TCP and other protocols. The Internet layer is responsible for addressing, routing, and packaging data packets called IP datagrams. The Internet Protocol is one of the protocols used in this layer. At the bottom of the reference model, the network interface layer is responsible for placing packets on and receiving them from the network medium, which could be any networking technology. Data sent from one computer to the other passes downward through all four layers, starting with the sending computer's application layer and passing through the network interface layer. After the data reach the recipient host computer, they travel up the layers and are reassembled into a format the receiving computer can use. If the receiving computer finds a damaged packet, it asks the sending computer to retransmit it. This process is reversed when the receiving computer responds. 162) Because of security issues, I wouldn't choose wireless transmission. The offices themselves can each have an Ethernet-based LAN, and they can connect to each other and to an Intranet via a secure, encrypted VPN over the Internet. Network hardware anticipated is: coaxial cable, network server, a switch. Because the LANs will be connected through a VPN, a router may not be needed. In anticipation of the need for a lot of data transmission, the

23 conn ection to the Internet will be through cable modems. A firewall, or several, for security purposes is anticipated. 163) I would recommend a mixed Ethernet and wireless network. The Ethernet LAN would connect the Web servers and primary workstations and connect via cable service to the Internet. Freelancers could connect wirelessly via access points. 164) The Internet provides ways to transfer files (FTP), work on remote computers (Telnet), distribute information in the form of pages (The Web), have real-time text-based conversations (instant messaging, chat), collaborate (wikis), communicate and share data with suppliers (extranets, Web-based applications), conduct group discussions (newsgroups), real-time voice conversations (chat, VOIP), send text messages ( ) and create lower cost networks (TCP/IP, extranets, intranets, VPN). Probably the two most important effects the Internet has had are the effects on network costs and ease of setting up a network using TCP/IP and Internet-based technologies, and , allowing near-instant documented messaging. has been a valuable alternative to post office mail. 165) Business can lower costs by using the Internet to deliver voice information, avoiding the tolls charged by local and long-distance telephone networks. They can lower costs from not having to create a separate telephone network. VOIP enables communication by supporting Internet conference calls using video. VOIP also provides flexibility - phones can be added or moved to different offices without rewiring or reconfiguring the network. 166) Network neutrality describes the current equal access by users to Internet bandwidth, regardless of the services they are using on the Internet. Network neutrality is the idea that Internet service providers must allow customers equal access to content and applications, regardless of the source or nature of the content. Presently, the Internet is indeed neutral: all Internet traffic is treated equally on a first-come, first-serve basis by Internet backbone owners. The Internet is neutral because it was built on phone lines, which are subject to common carriage' laws. These laws require phone companies to treat all calls and customers equally. For example, someone using the Internet to download large movie files pays the same rate as someone accessing their . Now telecommunications and cable companies want to be able to charge differentiated prices based on the amount of bandwidth consumed by content being delivered over the Internet. Student opinions will vary; one might be: I support network neutrality because the risk of censorship increases when network operators can selectively block or slow access to certain content. 167) One upcoming change is the move to IPv6, a new addressing scheme that will allow for billions more addresses. Other technological changes are being worked on by Internet2 and Next-Generation Internet (NGI); consortia representing 200 universities, private businesses, and government agencies in the United States that are working on a new, robust, high-bandwidth version of the Internet. A current trend in Internet content is Web 2.0 Web 2.0, second-generation interactive Internet-based services that enable people to collaborate, share information, and create new services online like mashups, blogs, RSS, and wikis. With Web 2.0, the Web is not just a collection of destination sites but a source of data and services that can be combined to create applications users need. Web 2.0 software applications run on the Web itself instead of the desktop and bring the vision of Web-based computing closer to realization. Another potential change or trend in Internet content is the Web 3.0 or Semantic Web, a collaborative effort led by the World Wide Web Consortium to make Web searching more efficient by reducing the amount of human involvement in searching for and processing Web information. The Semantic Web is still in its infancy. Further development requires extensive work to establish specific meanings for data on the Web, categories for classifying the data, and relationships between classification categories. Once some of this work takes place, computers will be able to make more sense of the Web, intelligent agents will be capable of performing sophisticated search tasks, and data in Web pages will be able to be processed automatically. Another technological change can be seen in the way the Internet is being accessed. Mobile wireless broadband Internet access is the fastest-growing form of Internet access in ) In inventory control and supply chain management, RFID systems capture and manage more detailed information about items in warehouses or in production than bar coding systems. If a large number of items are shipped together, RFID systems track each pallet, lot, or even unit item in the shipment. This technology may help companies improve receiving and storage operations by enhancing their ability to "see" exactly what stock is stored in warehouses or on retail store shelves. 169) Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are networks of interconnected wireless devices that are embedded into the physical environment to provide measurements of many points over large spaces. These devices have built-in processing, storage, and radio frequency sensors and antennas. They are linked into an interconnected network that

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