# Light: Geometric Optics (Chapter 23)

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Light: Geometric Optics (Chapter 23) Units of Chapter 23 The Ray Model of Light Reflection; Image Formed by a Plane Mirror Formation of Images by Spherical Index of Refraction Refraction: Snell s Law 1

2 Units of Chapter 23 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification Combinations of Lenses Lensmaker s Equation 23.1 The Ray Model of Light Light very often travels in straight lines. We represent light using rays, which are straight lines emanating from an object. This is an idealization, but is very useful for geometric optics. 2

3 23.2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror Law of reflection: the angle of reflection (that the ray makes with the normal to a surface) equals the angle of incidence Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror When light reflects from a rough surface, the law of reflection still holds, but the angle of incidence varies. This is called diffuse reflection. 3

4 23.2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror With diffuse reflection, your eye sees reflected light at all angles. With specular reflection (from a mirror), your eye must be in the correct position Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror What you see when you look into a plane (flat) mirror is an image, which appears to be behind the mirror. 4

5 23.2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror This is called a virtual image, as the light does not go through it. The distance of the image from the mirror is equal to the distance of the object from the mirror Formation of Images by Spherical Spherical mirrors are shaped like sections of a sphere, and may be reflective on either the inside (concave) or outside (convex). 5

6 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Rays coming from a faraway object are effectively parallel Formation of Images by Spherical Parallel rays striking a spherical mirror do not all converge at exactly the same place if the curvature of the mirror is large; this is called spherical aberration. 6

7 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical If the curvature is small, the focus is much more precise; the focal point is where the rays converge Formation of Images by Spherical Using geometry, we find that the focal length is half the radius of curvature: (23-1) Spherical aberration can be avoided by using a parabolic reflector; these are more difficult and expensive to make, and so are used only when necessary, such as in research telescopes. 7

8 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical We use ray diagrams to determine where an image will be. For mirrors, we use three key rays, all of which begin on the object: 1. A ray parallel to the axis; after reflection it passes through the focal point 2. A ray through the focal point; after reflection it is parallel to the axis 3. A ray perpendicular to the mirror; it reflects back on itself 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical 8

9 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical The intersection of these three rays gives the position of the image of that point on the object. To get a full image, we can do the same with other points (two points suffice for many purposes) Formation of Images by Spherical Geometrically, we can derive an equation that relates the object distance, image distance, and focal length of the mirror: (23-2) 9

10 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical We can also find the magnification (ratio of image height to object height). (23-3) The negative sign indicates that the image is inverted. This object is between the center of curvature and the focal point, and its image is larger, inverted, and real Formation of Images by Spherical If an object is outside the center of curvature of a concave mirror, its image will be inverted, smaller, and real. 10

11 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical If an object is inside the focal point, its image will be upright, larger, and virtual Formation of Images by Spherical For a convex mirror, the image is always virtual, upright, and smaller. 11

12 23.3 Formation of Images by Spherical Problem Solving: Spherical 1. Draw a ray diagram; the image is where the rays intersect. 2. Apply the mirror and magnification equations. 3. Sign conventions: if the object, image, or focal point is on the reflective side of the mirror, its distance is positive, and negative otherwise. Magnification is positive if image is upright, negative otherwise. 4. Check that your solution agrees with the ray diagram Index of Refraction In general, light slows somewhat when traveling through a medium. The index of refraction of the medium is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in the medium: (23-4) 12

13 23.5 Refraction: Snell s Law Light changes direction when crossing a boundary from one medium to another. This is called refraction, and the angle the outgoing ray makes with the normal is called the angle of refraction Refraction: Snell s Law Refraction is what makes objects halfsubmerged in water look odd. 13

14 23.5 Refraction: Snell s Law The angle of refraction depends on the indices of refraction, and is given by Snell s law: (23-5) 23.6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics If light passes into a medium with a smaller index of refraction, the angle of refraction is larger. There is an angle of incidence for which the angle of refraction will be 90 ; this is called the critical angle: (23-5) 14

15 23.6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics If the angle of incidence is larger than this, no transmission occurs. This is called total internal reflection Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Binoculars often use total internal reflection; this gives true 100% reflection, which even the best mirror cannot do. 15

16 23.6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Total internal reflection is also the principle behind fiber optics. Light will be transmitted along the fiber even if it is not straight. An image can be formed using multiple small fibers. Total Internal Reflection Light - Laser waterfall - total int reflect.asf 16

17 23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing Thin lenses are those whose thickness is small compared to their radius of curvature. They may be either converging (a) or diverging (b) Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing Parallel rays are brought to a focus by a converging lens (one that is thicker in the center than it is at the edge). 17

18 23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing A diverging lens (thicker at the edge than in the center) make parallel light diverge; the focal point is that point where the diverging rays would converge if projected back Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing The power of a lens is the inverse of its focal length. (23-7) Lens power is measured in diopters, D. 1 D = 1 m -1 18

19 23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing Ray tracing for thin lenses is similar to that for mirrors. We have three key rays: 1. This ray comes in parallel to the axis and exits through the focal point. 2. This ray comes in through the focal point and exits parallel to the axis. 3. This ray goes through the center of the lens and is undeflected Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing 19

20 23.7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing For a diverging lens, we can use the same three rays; the image is upright and virtual The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification The thin lens equation is the same as the mirror equation: (23-8) 20

21 23.8 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification The sign conventions are slightly different: 1. The focal length is positive for converging lenses and negative for diverging. 2. The object distance is positive when the object is on the same side as the light entering the lens (not an issue except in compound systems); otherwise it is negative. 3. The image distance is positive if the image is on the opposite side from the light entering the lens; otherwise it is negative. 4. The height of the image is positive if the image is upright and negative otherwise The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification The magnification formula is also the same as that for a mirror: (23-9) The power of a lens is positive if it is converging and negative if it is diverging. 21

22 23.8 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification Problem Solving: Thin Lenses 1. Draw a ray diagram. The image is located where the key rays intersect. 2. Solve for unknowns. 3. Follow the sign conventions. 4. Check that your answers are consistent with the ray diagram Combinations of Lenses In lens combinations, the image formed by the first lens becomes the object for the second lens (this is where object distances may be negative). 22

23 23.10 Lensmaker s Equation This useful equation relates the radii of curvature of the two lens surfaces, and the index of refraction, to the focal length. (23-10) Summary of Chapter 23 Light paths are called rays Index of refraction: Angle of reflection equals angle of incidence Plane mirror: image is virtual, upright, and the same size as the object Spherical mirror can be concave or convex Focal length of the mirror: 23

24 Mirror equation: Summary of Chapter 23 Magnification: Real image: light passes through it Virtual image: light does not pass through Summary of Chapter 23 Law of refraction (Snell s law): Total internal reflection occurs when angle of incidence is greater than critical angle: A converging lens focuses incoming parallel rays to a point 24

25 Summary of Chapter 23 A diverging lens spreads incoming rays so that they appear to come from a point Power of a lens: Thin lens equation: Magnification: Homework Chp 23 Problems: # 5, 15, 17, 29, 35, 43, 55, 25

### Light: Geometric Optics

Light: Geometric Optics 23.1 The Ray Model of Light Light very often travels in straight lines. We represent light using rays, which are straight lines emanating from an object. This is an idealization,

### AP Physics: Curved Mirrors and Lenses

The Ray Model of Light Light often travels in straight lines. We represent light using rays, which are straight lines emanating from an object. This is an idealization, but is very useful for geometric

### Light: Geometric Optics

Light: Geometric Optics The Ray Model of Light Light very often travels in straight lines. We represent light using rays, which are straight lines emanating from an object. This is an idealization, but

### Chapter 32 Light: Reflection and Refraction. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 32 Light: Reflection and Refraction Units of Chapter 32 The Ray Model of Light Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors Index of Refraction Refraction:

### Algebra Based Physics

Slide 1 / 66 Slide 2 / 66 Algebra Based Physics Geometric Optics 2015-12-01 www.njctl.org Table of ontents Slide 3 / 66 lick on the topic to go to that section Reflection Spherical Mirror Refraction and

### Phys102 Lecture 21/22 Light: Reflection and Refraction

Phys102 Lecture 21/22 Light: Reflection and Refraction Key Points The Ray Model of Light Reflection and Mirrors Refraction, Snell s Law Total internal Reflection References 23-1,2,3,4,5,6. The Ray Model

### Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics

Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics 1 Overview of Chapter 26 The Reflection of Light Forming Images with a Plane Mirror Spherical Mirrors Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation The Refraction of Light Ray Tracing

### Optics II. Reflection and Mirrors

Optics II Reflection and Mirrors Geometric Optics Using a Ray Approximation Light travels in a straight-line path in a homogeneous medium until it encounters a boundary between two different media The

### Lecture Outline Chapter 26. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 26 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics Units of Chapter 26 The Reflection of Light Forming Images with a Plane Mirror Spherical Mirrors Ray Tracing

### Chapter 23. Light Geometric Optics

Chapter 23. Light Geometric Optics There are 3 basic ways to gather light and focus it to make an image. Pinhole - Simple geometry Mirror - Reflection Lens - Refraction Pinhole Camera Image Formation (the

### LIGHT. Speed of light Law of Reflection Refraction Snell s Law Mirrors Lenses

LIGHT Speed of light Law of Reflection Refraction Snell s Law Mirrors Lenses Light = Electromagnetic Wave Requires No Medium to Travel Oscillating Electric and Magnetic Field Travel at the speed of light

### Reflection & Mirrors

Reflection & Mirrors Geometric Optics Using a Ray Approximation Light travels in a straight-line path in a homogeneous medium until it encounters a boundary between two different media A ray of light is

### Chapter 34: Geometrical Optics

Chapter 34: Geometrical Optics Mirrors Plane Spherical (convex or concave) Lenses The lens equation Lensmaker s equation Combination of lenses E! Phys Phys 2435: 22: Chap. 34, 3, Pg Mirrors New Topic Phys

### Nicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 24. Geometrical Optics. Marilyn Akins, PhD Broome Community College

Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 24 Geometrical Optics Marilyn Akins, PhD Broome Community College Optics The study of light is called optics Some highlights in the history

### General Physics II. Mirrors & Lenses

General Physics II Mirrors & Lenses Nothing New! For the next several lectures we will be studying geometrical optics. You already know the fundamentals of what is going on!!! Reflection: θ 1 = θ r incident

### The Ray model of Light. Reflection. Class 18

The Ray model of Light Over distances of a terrestrial scale light travels in a straight line. The path of a laser is now the best way we have of defining a straight line. The model of light which assumes

### Ray Optics. Physics 11. Sources of Light Rays: Self-Luminous Objects. The Ray Model of Light

Physics 11 Ray Optics Ray Model of Light Reflection Plane Mirrors Spherical Mirrors Ray Tracing Images from a Concave Mirror Images from a Convex Mirror Slide 18-3 The Ray Model of Light Sources of Light

### Physics 1C Lecture 26A. Beginning of Chapter 26

Physics 1C Lecture 26A Beginning of Chapter 26 Mirrors and Lenses! As we have noted before, light rays can be diverted by optical systems to fool your eye into thinking an object is somewhere that it is

### Chapter 7: Geometrical Optics. The branch of physics which studies the properties of light using the ray model of light.

Chapter 7: Geometrical Optics The branch of physics which studies the properties of light using the ray model of light. Overview Geometrical Optics Spherical Mirror Refraction Thin Lens f u v r and f 2

### PHYS 219 General Physics: Electricity, Light and Modern Physics

PHYS 219 General Physics: Electricity, Light and Modern Physics Exam 2 is scheduled on Tuesday, March 26 @ 8 10 PM In Physics 114 It will cover four Chapters 21, 22, 23, and 24. Start reviewing lecture

### The Law of Reflection

If the surface off which the light is reflected is smooth, then the light undergoes specular reflection (parallel rays will all be reflected in the same directions). If, on the other hand, the surface

### Chapter 23. Geometrical Optics: Mirrors and Lenses and other Instruments

Chapter 23 Geometrical Optics: Mirrors and Lenses and other Instruments HITT1 A small underwater pool light is 1 m below the surface of a swimming pool. What is the radius of the circle of light on the

### Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics

Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics 26.1 The Reflection of Light 26.2 Forming Images With a Plane Mirror 26.3 Spherical Mirrors 26.4 Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation 26.5 The Refraction of Light 26.6 Ray

### Light & Optical Systems Reflection & Refraction. Notes

Light & Optical Systems Reflection & Refraction Notes What is light? Light is electromagnetic radiation Ultra-violet + visible + infra-red Behavior of Light Light behaves in 2 ways particles (photons)

### Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics

Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics The Reflection of Light: Mirrors: Mirrors produce images because the light that strikes them is reflected, rather than absorbed. Reflected light does much more than produce

### Chapter 33 Continued Properties of Light. Law of Reflection Law of Refraction or Snell s Law Chromatic Dispersion Brewsters Angle

Chapter 33 Continued Properties of Light Law of Reflection Law of Refraction or Snell s Law Chromatic Dispersion Brewsters Angle Dispersion: Different wavelengths have different velocities and therefore

### PHY 171 Lecture 6 (January 18, 2012)

PHY 171 Lecture 6 (January 18, 2012) Light Throughout most of the next 2 weeks, we will be concerned with the wave properties of light, and phenomena based on them (interference & diffraction). Light also

### Lecture Outlines Chapter 26

Lecture Outlines Chapter 26 11/18/2013 2 Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics Objectives: After completing this module, you should be able to: Explain and discuss with diagrams, reflection and refraction of light

### Ch. 26: Geometrical Optics

Sec. 6-1: The Reflection of Light Wave Fronts and Rays Ch. 6: Geometrical Optics Wave front: a surface on which E is a maximum. Figure 5-3: Plane Wave *For this wave, the wave fronts are a series of planes.

### Physics 11 Chapter 18: Ray Optics

Physics 11 Chapter 18: Ray Optics "... Everything can be taken from a man but one thing; the last of the human freedoms to choose one s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one s own way.

### Part Images Formed by Flat Mirrors. This Chapter. Phys. 281B Geometric Optics. Chapter 2 : Image Formation. Chapter 2: Image Formation

Phys. 281B Geometric Optics This Chapter 3 Physics Department Yarmouk University 21163 Irbid Jordan 1- Images Formed by Flat Mirrors 2- Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors 3- Images Formed by Refraction

### Optics Course (Phys 311) Geometrical Optics Refraction through Lenses

Optics Course (Phys ) Geometrical Optics Refraction through Lenses Lecturer: Dr Zeina Hashim Slide 1 Objectives covered in this lesson : 1. Refraction through single spherical refracting surfaces. 2. Lenses:

### PHYSICS. Chapter 34 Lecture FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS A STRATEGIC APPROACH 4/E RANDALL D. KNIGHT

PHYSICS FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS A STRATEGIC APPROACH 4/E Chapter 34 Lecture RANDALL D. KNIGHT Chapter 34 Ray Optics IN THIS CHAPTER, you will learn about and apply the ray model of light Slide 34-2

### GEOMETRIC OPTICS. LENSES refract light, so we need to know how light bends when entering and exiting a lens and how that interaction forms an image.

I. What is GEOMTERIC OPTICS GEOMETRIC OPTICS In geometric optics, LIGHT is treated as imaginary rays. How these rays interact with at the interface of different media, including lenses and mirrors, is

### Geometric Optics. The Law of Reflection. Physics Waves & Oscillations 3/20/2016. Spring 2016 Semester Matthew Jones

Physics 42200 Waves & Oscillations Lecture 27 Propagation of Light Hecht, chapter 5 Spring 2016 Semester Matthew Jones Geometric Optics Typical problems in geometric optics: Given an optical system, what

### Chapter 23. Geometrical Optics (lecture 1: mirrors) Dr. Armen Kocharian

Chapter 23 Geometrical Optics (lecture 1: mirrors) Dr. Armen Kocharian Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface The light radiate from a point object in all directions The light reflected from a plane

### Chapter 36. Image Formation

Chapter 36 Image Formation Apr 22, 2012 Light from distant things We learn about a distant thing from the light it generates or redirects. The lenses in our eyes create images of objects our brains can

### Lecture Notes (Geometric Optics)

Lecture Notes (Geometric Optics) Intro: - plane mirrors are flat, smooth surfaces from which light is reflected by regular reflection - light rays are reflected with equal angles of incidence and reflection

### Section 2 Flat Mirrors. Distinguish between specular and diffuse reflection of light. Apply the law of reflection for flat mirrors.

Section 2 Flat Mirrors Objectives Distinguish between specular and diffuse reflection of light. Apply the law of reflection for flat mirrors. Describe the nature of images formed by flat mirrors. Section

### Waves & Oscillations

Physics 42200 Waves & Oscillations Lecture 26 Propagation of Light Hecht, chapter 5 Spring 2015 Semester Matthew Jones Geometric Optics Typical problems in geometric optics: Given an optical system, what

### PHYS 202 Notes, Week 9

PHYS 202 Notes, Week 9 Greg Christian March 22 & 24, 206 Last updated: 03/24/206 at 2:23:56 This week we learn about images by mirrors, refraction, and thin lenses. Images Spherical Mirrors First let s

### Lecture Notes (Reflection & Mirrors)

Lecture Notes (Reflection & Mirrors) Intro: - plane mirrors are flat, smooth surfaces from which light is reflected by regular reflection - light rays are reflected with equal angles of incidence and reflection

### P H Y L A B 1 : G E O M E T R I C O P T I C S

P H Y 1 4 3 L A B 1 : G E O M E T R I C O P T I C S Introduction Optics is the study of the way light interacts with other objects. This behavior can be extremely complicated. However, if the objects in

### Optics. a- Before the beginning of the nineteenth century, light was considered to be a stream of particles.

Optics 1- Light Nature: a- Before the beginning of the nineteenth century, light was considered to be a stream of particles. The particles were either emitted by the object being viewed or emanated from

### Physics 1202: Lecture 17 Today s Agenda

Physics 1202: Lecture 17 Today s Agenda Announcements: Team problems today Team 10, 11 & 12: this Thursday Homework #8: due Friday Midterm 2: Tuesday April 10 Office hours if needed (M-2:30-3:30 or TH

### Reflection and Mirrors

Reflection and Mirrors 1 The Law of Reflection The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. 2 The Law of Reflection When light strikes a surface it is reflected. The light ray striking the surface

### The Reflection of Light

King Saud University College of Applied Studies and Community Service Department of Natural Sciences The Reflection of Light General Physics II PHYS 111 Nouf Alkathran nalkathran@ksu.edu.sa Outline Introduction

### Thin Lenses. Lecture 23. Chapter 34. Ray Optics. Physics II. Course website:

Lecture 23 Chapter 34 Physics II Ray Optics Thin Lenses Course website: http://faculty.uml.edu/andriy_danylov/teaching/physicsii Today we are going to discuss: Chapter 34: Section 34.5-6 Thin Lenses There

### Chapter 7: Geometrical Optics

Chapter 7: Geometrical Optics 7. Reflection at a Spherical Surface L.O 7.. State laws of reflection Laws of reflection state: L.O The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal all lie in the same

### Ch. 25 The Reflection of Light

Ch. 25 The Reflection of Light 25. Wave fronts and rays We are all familiar with mirrors. We see images because some light is reflected off the surface of the mirror and into our eyes. In order to describe

### Essential Physics I. Lecture 13:

Essential Physics I E I Lecture 13: 11-07-16 Reminders No lecture: Monday 18th July (holiday) Essay due: Monday 25th July, 4:30 pm 2 weeks!! Exam: Monday 1st August, 4:30 pm Announcements 250 word essay

### Reflections. I feel pretty, oh so pretty

Reflections I feel pretty, oh so pretty Objectives By the end of the lesson, you should be able to: Draw an accurate reflective angle Determine the focal length of a spherical mirror Light Review Light

### M = h' h = #i. n = c v

Name: Physics Chapter 14 Study Guide ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Useful Information: c = 3 "10 8 m s 1 i + 1 o = 1 f M = h' h =

### Chapter 23. Images and Mirrors 3/23/11. Mirrors and Lenses QUESTIONS? PLEASE ASK! Types of Images for Mirrors and Lenses.

3/23/ LIGO mirror Announcements LIGO mirror Two exams down, one to go! No HW this week. Credit: LIGO Laboratory, Caltech Office hours: My office hours today from 2-3 pm (or make an appointment) Chapter

### 34.2: Two Types of Image

Chapter 34 Images 34.2: Two Types of Image For you to see an object, your eye intercepts some of the light rays spreading from the object and then redirect them onto the retina at the rear of the eye.

### Welcome to: Physics I. I m Dr Alex Pettitt, and I ll be your guide!

Welcome to: Physics I I m Dr Alex Pettitt, and I ll be your guide! Physics I: x Mirrors and lenses Lecture 13: 6-11-2018 Last lecture: Reflection & Refraction Reflection: Light ray hits surface Ray moves

### PH 222-2A Spring 2015

PH 222-2A Spring 2015 Images Lectures 24-25 Chapter 34 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 9 th edition) 3 Chapter 34 Images One of the most important uses of the basic laws governing light

### Refraction of Light. This bending of the ray is called refraction

Refraction & Lenses Refraction of Light When a ray of light traveling through a transparent medium encounters a boundary leading into another transparent medium, part of the ray is reflected and part of

### LIGHT & OPTICS. Fundamentals of Physics 2112 Chapter 34 1

LIGHT & OPTICS Fundamentals of Physics 22 Chapter 34 Chapter 34 Images. Two Types of Images 2. Plane Mirrors 3. Spherical Mirrors 4. Images from Spherical Mirrors 5. Spherical Refracting Surfaces 6. Thin

### 1. What is the law of reflection?

Name: Skill Sheet 7.A The Law of Reflection The law of reflection works perfectly with light and the smooth surface of a mirror. However, you can apply this law to other situations. For example, how would

### All forms of EM waves travel at the speed of light in a vacuum = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s This speed is constant in air as well

Pre AP Physics Light & Optics Chapters 14-16 Light is an electromagnetic wave Electromagnetic waves: Oscillating electric and magnetic fields that are perpendicular to the direction the wave moves Difference

### 2/26/2016. Chapter 23 Ray Optics. Chapter 23 Preview. Chapter 23 Preview

Chapter 23 Ray Optics Chapter Goal: To understand and apply the ray model of light. Slide 23-2 Chapter 23 Preview Slide 23-3 Chapter 23 Preview Slide 23-4 1 Chapter 23 Preview Slide 23-5 Chapter 23 Preview

### Light, Photons, and MRI

Light, Photons, and MRI When light hits an object, some of it will be reflected. The reflected light can form an image. We usually want to be able to characterize the image given what we know about the

### Unit 11 Light and Optics Holt Chapter 14 Student Outline Light and Refraction

Holt Chapter 14 Student Outline Light and Refraction Variables introduced or used in chapter: Quantity Symbol Units Speed of light frequency wavelength angle Object Distance Image Distance Radius of Curvature

### INTRODUCTION REFLECTION AND REFRACTION AT BOUNDARIES. Introduction. Reflection and refraction at boundaries. Reflection at a single surface

Chapter 8 GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Introduction Reflection and refraction at boundaries. Reflection at a single surface Refraction at a single boundary Dispersion Summary INTRODUCTION It has been shown that

### Outline The Refraction of Light Forming Images with a Plane Mirror 26-3 Spherical Mirror 26-4 Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation

Chapter 6 Geometrical Optics Outline 6-1 The Reflection of Light 6- Forming Images with a Plane Mirror 6-3 Spherical Mirror 6-4 Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation 6-5 The Refraction of Light 6-6 Ray Tracing

### Light and Mirrors MIRRORS

Light and Mirrors MIRRORS 1 Polarized Sunglasses- How do they work? light waves vibrate in more than one plane light waves can be made to vibrate in a single plane by use of polarizing filters. 2 polarizing

### Optics and Images. Lenses and Mirrors. Matthew W. Milligan

Optics and Images Lenses and Mirrors Light: Interference and Optics I. Light as a Wave - wave basics review - electromagnetic radiation II. Diffraction and Interference - diffraction, Huygen s principle

### Dispersion (23.5) Neil Alberding (SFU Physics) Physics 121: Optics, Electricity & Magnetism Spring / 17

Neil Alberding (SFU Physics) Physics 121: Optics, Electricity & Magnetism Spring 2010 1 / 17 Dispersion (23.5) The speed of light in a material depends on its wavelength White light is a mixture of wavelengths

### Ray Optics. Ray model Reflection Refraction, total internal reflection Color dispersion Lenses Image formation Magnification Spherical mirrors

Ray Optics Ray model Reflection Refraction, total internal reflection Color dispersion Lenses Image formation Magnification Spherical mirrors 1 Ray optics Optical imaging and color in medicine Integral

### Chapter 3: Mirrors and Lenses

Chapter 3: Mirrors and Lenses Chapter 3: Mirrors and Lenses Lenses Refraction Converging rays Diverging rays Converging Lens Ray tracing rules Image formation Diverging Lens Ray tracing Image formation

### Physics for Scientists & Engineers 2

Geometric Optics Physics for Scientists & Engineers 2 Spring Semester 2005 Lecture 36! The study of light divides itself into three fields geometric optics wave optics quantum optics! In the previous chapter,

### Chapter 34. Images. In this chapter we define and classify images, and then classify several basic ways in which they can be produced.

Chapter 34 Images One of the most important uses of the basic laws governing light is the production of images. Images are critical to a variety of fields and industries ranging from entertainment, security,

### Chapter 18 Ray Optics

Chapter 18 Ray Optics Chapter Goal: To understand and apply the ray model of light. Slide 18-1 Chapter 18 Preview Looking Ahead Text p. 565 Slide 18-2 Wavefronts and Rays When visible light or other electromagnetic

### Refraction at a single curved spherical surface

Refraction at a single curved spherical surface This is the beginning of a sequence of classes which will introduce simple and complex lens systems We will start with some terminology which will become

### Physics 1C. Lecture 23A. "If Dracula can t see his reflection in the mirror, how come his hair is always so neatly combed?

Physics 1C Lecture 23A "If Dracula can t see his reflection in the mirror, how come his hair is always so neatly combed?" --Steven Wright Mirror Equation You can mathematically relate the object distance,

### Light and Lenses Notes

Light and Lenses Notes Refraction The change in speed and direction of a wave Due to change in medium Must cross boundary at an angle other than 90 o, otherwise no change in direction I R (unlike reflection)

### Image Formation and the Lens: Object Beyond The Focal Point

Image Formation and the Lens: Object Beyond The Focal Point A convex lens is shown below with its focal points displayed (the dots). An object is located to the left of and at a distance of 2f to the lens.

### The Role of Light to Sight

Reflection The Role of Light to Sight The visual ability of humans and other animals is the result of the complex interaction of light, eyes and brain. Absence of Light Darkness. Luminous objects are objects

### Willis High School Physics Workbook Unit 7 Waves and Optics

Willis High School Physics Workbook Unit 7 Waves and Optics This workbook belongs to Period Waves and Optics Pacing Guide DAY DATE TEXTBOOK PREREADING CLASSWORK HOMEWORK ASSESSMENT M 2/25 T 2/26 W 2/27

### Homework Set 3 Due Thursday, 07/14

Homework Set 3 Due Thursday, 07/14 Problem 1 A room contains two parallel wall mirrors, on opposite walls 5 meters apart. The mirrors are 8 meters long. Suppose that one person stands in a doorway, in

### Image Formed by a Plane Mirror. point object A, source of light

Today s agenda: Plane Mirrors. You must be able to draw ray diagrams for plane mirrors, and be able to calculate image and object heights, distances, and magnifications. Spherical Mirrors: concave and

### HW Chapter 20 Q 2,3,4,5,6,10,13 P 1,2,3. Chapter 20. Classic and Modern Optics. Dr. Armen Kocharian

HW Chapter 20 Q 2,3,4,5,6,10,13 P 1,2,3 Chapter 20 Classic and Modern Optics Dr. Armen Kocharian Electromagnetic waves and matter: A Brief History of Light 1000 AD It was proposed that light consisted

### Unit 9 Light & Optics

Unit 9 Light & Optics 1 A quick review of the properties of light. Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation Light travels as transverse waves having wavelength and frequency. fλ=c The velocity of EMR

### CHAPTER- 10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

CHAPTER- 10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION LIGHT Light is a form of energy, which enable us to see the object. Its speed is 3 10 8 m/s in vacuum. Light always travel in straight line. Reflection: The

### Chapter 12 Notes: Optics

Chapter 12 Notes: Optics How can the paths traveled by light rays be rearranged in order to form images? In this chapter we will consider just one form of electromagnetic wave: visible light. We will be

### P06 ray diagrams with concave mirrors and intro to problem solving.notebook

Ray Diagrams Concave Mirror A concave mirror is a converging mirror because parallel rays will. For any object, millions and millions of rays are reflected in all directions. Some of these rays hit the

### Refraction and Lenses. Honors Physics

Refraction and Lenses Honors Physics Refraction Refraction is based on the idea that LIGHT is passing through one MEDIUM into another. The question is, WHAT HAPPENS? Suppose you are running on the beach

### Optics Course (Phys 311) Geometrical Optics Refraction through Lenses

Optics Course (Phys ) Geometrical Optics Refraction through Lenses Lecturer: Dr Zeina Hashim Slide 1 Objectives covered in this lesson : 1. The refracting power of a thin lens. 2. Thin lens combinations.

### Video: The Mirror. Unit #3 - Optics. Geometric Optics. A) The Law of Reflection. applications Mirrors.

Video: The Mirror http://vimeo.com/6212004 Unit #3 - Optics 11.1 - Mirrors Geometric Optics the science of how light reflects and bends optical device is any technology that uses light A) The Law of Reflection

### CHAPTER 29: REFLECTION

CHAPTER 29: REFLECTION 29.1 REFLECTION The return of a wave back to its original medium is called reflection. Fasten a spring to a wall and send a pulse along the spring s length. The wall is a very rigid

### Chapter 5 Mirrors and Lenses

Chapter 5 Notes: Mirrors and Lenses Name: Block: The Ray Model of Light The ray model of light represents light as a line, or ray, indicating the path of a beam of light. Light travels in straight lines

### Chapter 5: Light and Vision CHAPTER 5: LIGHT AND VISION

CHAPTER 5: LIGHT AND VISION These notes have been compiled in a way to make it easier or revision. The topics are not in order as per the syllabus. 5.1 Mirrors and Lenses 5.1.1 Image Characteristics Image

### Ray Diagrams. Ray Diagrams Used for determining location, size, orientation, and type of image

Ray Diagrams Reflection for concave mirror: Any incident ray traveling parallel to the principal axis on the way to the mirror will pass through the focal point upon reflection. Any incident ray passing

### Textbook Reference: Glencoe Physics: Chapters 16-18

Honors Physics-121B Geometric Optics Introduction: A great deal of evidence suggests that light travels in straight lines. A source of light like the sun casts distinct shadows. We can hear sound from

### Geometrical Optics INTRODUCTION. Wave Fronts and Rays

Geometrical Optics INTRODUCTION In this experiment, the optical characteristics of mirrors, lenses, and prisms will be studied based on using the following physics definitions and relationships plus simple

### Winmeen Tnpsc Group 1 & 2 Self Preparation Course Physics UNIT 9. Ray Optics. surface at the point of incidence, all lie in the same plane.

Laws of reflection Physics UNIT 9 Ray Optics The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal drawn to the reflecting surface at the point of incidence, all lie in the same plane. The angle of incidence

### Optics INTRODUCTION DISCUSSION OF PRINCIPLES. Reflection by a Plane Mirror

Optics INTRODUCTION Geometric optics is one of the oldest branches of physics, dealing with the laws of reflection and refraction. Reflection takes place on the surface of an object, and refraction occurs