Global Illumination. COMP 575/770 Spring 2013


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1 Global Illumination COMP 575/770 Spring 2013
2 Final Exam and Projects COMP 575 Final Exam Friday, May 3 4:00 pm COMP 770 (and 575 extra credit) Projects Final report due by end of day, May 1 Presentations: May 2, 9:30 am 12:00pm minute slots
3 Global Illumination Simulation of light transport Or, how light interacts with objects in a scene Including light bouncing between objects Can lead to many complex, subtle effects
4 Local Shading Model Simple analytic model: Diffuse reflection Specular reflection Ambient light Emission Reflections Refractions Shadows
5 Local Shading Model Light transport simulated from: Light to surface point Surface point to camera Special cases: Reflection: recursive ray Shadows: shadow ray to light source
6 Global Shading Model Light transport simulated between: Light to surface point Surface point to surface point Surface points to camera Surface to surface transport: How many surfaces to consider? How many bounces to simulate? What kinds of bounces? (Specular, scattering, etc.)
7 Indirect Light
8 Color Bleeding
9 Caustics
10 Caustics
11 SurfacetoSurface Transport Mirrorlike reflections Purely specular surface to diffuse surface Refractions Translucent surface to diffuse surface Diffuse interreflections Diffuse surface to diffuse surface
12 Diffuse Interreflections
13 Radiosity An algorithm for simulating diffuse interreflections No specular reflection or refraction Handles any number of diffuse bounces of light Solution depends only on light position And not on camera position
14 Radiosity What is radiosity? The amount of light energy leaving a surface Lots of complex math behind all this Covered in more advanced courses Divide the scene into surface patches Find the radiosity at each patch
15 Radiosity Assume: Surface patches are purely diffuse, opaque Surfaces don t move Scene is in a vacuum Radiosity of one patch depends on radiosity of every other patch Build a huge system of linear equations Radiosity at each patch is a variable Coefficients form a large matrix
16 Radiosity
17 Radiosity Examples
18 Radiosity Examples
19 Radiosity Examples
20 Radiosity Examples
21 Progressive Radiosity Solve for radiosity after each bounce of diffuse interreflections
22 Path Tracing How can we model diffuse interreflections in a recursive ray tracer? A diffuse surface reflects light in all directions What other phenomena involve light from multiple directions? Soft shadows Ambient occlusion
23 Path Tracing When a ray hits a diffuse surface, trace rays in all directions Sample a hemisphere of directions at the hit point Alternatively: Sample a single reflected direction at random And sample multiple rays per pixel Each ray sample results in a different reflected direction This approach is called path tracing
24 Path Tracing Need lots of samples per pixel (50+) Samples are chosen based on probability distributions Which in turn depend on surface properties Can simulate any kind of surface Diffuse, specular, glossy, etc.
25 Path Tracing Examples
26 Path Tracing Examples
27 Path Tracing
28 Path Tracing Best for large lights If the lights are small, few rays hit them causing the image to look noisy
29 Path Tracing + Shadow Rays
30 Path Tracing + Shadow Rays Works well for specular surfaces
31 Light Tracing
32 Bidirectional Path Tracing
33 Bidirectional Path Tracing Light Tracing BiDirectional Path Tracing Path Tracing
34 Bidirectional Path Tracing Light Tracing BiDirectional Path Tracing Path Tracing
35 Bidirectional Path Tracing
36 Metropolis Light Transport Named after the physicist Nicholas Metropolis Nothing to do with cities, public transit, or superheroes Path tracing needs lots of samples in certain cases Small lights Glossy surfaces If you find such a path, look for other similar ones nearby Sample more paths near important paths
37 Metropolis Light Transport All the light in the room comes in through a crack in the doorway.
38 Metropolis Light Transport BiDirectional Path Tracing Metropolis Light Transport
39 Photon Mapping A twopass algorithm First pass: construct a photon map Trace photons from light Reflect them off surfaces (diffuse or specular) Store the photons at surfaces (probabilistically) Second pass: render from photon map Trace rays from camera Collect photons from photon map at the hit point Compute lighting at the surface
40 Photon Mapping
41 Photon Mapping
42 Precomputed Radiance Transfer Somewhat similar to radiosity But stores interactions between each pair of patches Allows lights to move in realtime! Used in many topquality games
43 Precomputed Radiance Transfer
44 Precomputed Radiance Transfer Two step process Precomputation Derive a matrix representing the optical properties of a scene Runtime Use the matrix to quickly perform global illumination
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