Shading, lighting, & BRDF Theory. Cliff Lindsay, PHD

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1 Shading, lighting, & BRDF Theory Cliff Lindsay, PHD
2 Overview of today s lecture BRDF Characteristics Lights in terms of BRDFs Classes of BRDFs Ambient light & Shadows in terms of BRDFs
3 Decomposing Reflection Phong = Amb + Diff + Spec Don t Confuse Phong Shading
4 Refresher on lighting Diffuse component : idiff i=iamb+idiff+ispec Diffuse is Lambert s law: i diff nl Photons are scattered equally in all directions i diff ( nl) m diff s diff cos
5 Lighting Specular component : ispec Diffuse is dull (left) Specular: simulates a highlight
6 Specular component: Phong Phong specular highlight model Reflect l around n: r l 2(n l)n m shi m i ( r v) (cos ) shi spec ( n l) n r l n l nl i spec mshi max(0,( r v) ) m spec s spec Read about Blinns highlight formula: (n. h) m
7 Ambient component: iamb Adhoc tries to account for light coming from other surfaces Just add a constant color: i amb m amb s amb
8 Lighting i=iamb+idiff+ispec + + = This is just a hack! Has little to do with how reality works!
9 What s lighting and what s shading? Lighting: the interaction between light and matter Shading: do lighting (at vertices) and determine pixel s colors from these Three types of shading: Flat, Goraud, and Phong
10 Now Some Info About Lights
11 Additions to the lighting equation Depends on distance: 1/(a+bt+ct ) Can have more lights: just sum their respective contributions Different light types: 2
12 Omni r l E L Lights pl pl I r r L 2 ps ps Directional Omni with falloff Spotlight
13 Falloff OpenGL way f dist s c s l 1 r s q r 2 Typical for Games f dist r r end end 1, r r 0 start,
14 Spotlights I L ( l) I L *( s 0 l) s exp S angle Ppenumbra U  cutoff
15 BRDF Theory Ratio between incoming and outgoing light Outgoing Incoming f ( l, v) Lo ( v) E( l)cos( ) i Think of f(l,v) as a function l v
16 BRDFs Better Modeling Better Modeling: Diffuse define better diffuse Specular different types of specular Ambient beyond just simple Phong ambient
17 What We ve Done Already For Phong Reflectance We calculate L o = f(l,v)*e(l)*cos( i ) Phong = i*mat+i*nl*mat+i*(nr) m *mat E(l) E(l) f(l,v) E(l) f(l,v) f ( l, v) Lo ( v) E( l)cos( ) i
18 BRDF Theory Generally Parameterized by: i  incoming o outgoing n Normal V View Vector L Light Vector Easy to param based on two quantities
19 BRDF Characteristics Helmholtz Reciprocity f ( l, v) f ( v, l) Conservation of Energy What comes in, must go?  Out  Absorbed  Scattered
20 Light Material Interaction When Light Hits Material: Interacts with surface Goes through surface an interacts below surface Independent of color (most of time for us) SubSurface Interaction Surface Interaction
21 Fresnel Reflectance Governs interface between two surfaces r i is the ideal reflection (look familiar?) t is the ideal refraction Snell s Law (n 1 sin( i ) = n 2 sin( t ) ) i = 90, glancing angle produces white color
22 Fresnel Example
23 Which Would You Drink?
24 Subsurface Scattering Very Important for flesh Most organic materials exhibit Lots of other materials too Without With
25 MicroGeometry
26 Microgeometry A. Self Shadowing B. Masking C. Interreflection (self) A B C
27 Example: MicroGeometry RetroReflection
28 Microfacet Special Case Microgeometry Facets Assumed to be ideal mirrors Uses Halfvector h (halfway vector) NDF: Normal Distribution Function p(h) Introduces Geometry Factor G(l,v)
29 Microfacet Incorporates: NDF distribution of facets on surface Geometry surface geometry Fresnel f ( l, v) p( h) G( l, v) Rf ( h) 4k cos( )cos( ) p i o
30 Example BRDFs Modified Phong Old Phong Physically Accurate Phong mat f ( l, v) mat f ( l, v) mat *cos( r ) cos( i ) 0 mat *cos( r ) m m,,
31 Simple Visibility Many BRDFs (especially game ones) have no visibility term at all This means the visibility term = 1 Implies geometry factor = nl * nv.
32 Torrance Sparrow Geometry invented by Blinn in 1975 as a reformulation of the Torrance Sparrow based on an microgeometry model not affected by roughness
33 More Geometry Factors KelemenSzirmayKalos Geometry Factor Has cheap and effective approximation
34 Rougher = Blurrier
35 Smith Geometry Factor Gsmith cos i cos (1 k) i k cos o cos (1 k) o k Incorporates roughness into Geometry Term k=(2m 2 /) Roughness
36 Many Different Things To Consider
37 Samples from realworld materials
38 Demo
39 More Geometry Factor Phong Ambient Ambient Occlusion AO + GI Light Instead of general inclusion within the BRDF We can account for geometry for each geometry specifically
40 Ambient Occlusion At surface points P shoot out rays If we hit something shelfshadow If not, calculate lighting (NL) or something Incorporate into reflectance function
41 AO Light = local hemisphere Centered at current surface point Radius = user parameter Can be rendered with ray tracing Gives perceptual clues of depth, curvature and spatial proximity Lots of techniques (For Games: Screen Space, HorizonBased, ImageSpace)
42 Example
43 Other Illumination Models Cliff Lindsay
44 Overview of today s lecture Refresher on simple lighting models Plus some new stuff More Advanced Illumination Models
45 Additions to the lighting equation Depends on distance: 1/(a+bt+ct ) Can have more lights: just sum their respective contributions Different light types: 2
46 What s lighting and what s shading? Lighting: the interaction between light and matter Shading: do lighting (at vertices) and determine pixel s colors from these Three types of shading: Flat, Goraud, and Phong
47 Global Models You have seen: Local illumination model: Phong Ambient Diffuse Specular Point light sources No: shadows, interobject light reflection. More global illumination model: Ray Tracing Shadows Area light sources (via distributed ray tracing) interobject light reflection Tradeoffs: Improvements in fidelity come at the expense of computational complexity.
48 Realistic rendering For each visible point p in the scene How much light is reflected towards the camera
49 Direct + Indirect p
50 Local vs. Global
51 Indirect Light Directonly 1bounce indirect 2bounce indirect
52 Ray Tracing
53 Different Ways to Achieve GI Ray Tracing Path Tracing Photon Mapping Radiosity Metropolis Light Transport
54 Put it all together
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