Bigtable. A Distributed Storage System for Structured Data. Presenter: Yunming Zhang Conglong Li. Saturday, September 21, 13

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1 Bigtable A Distributed Storage System for Structured Data Presenter: Yunming Zhang Conglong Li

2 References SOCC 2010 Key Note Slides Jeff Dean Google Introduction to Distributed Computing, Winter 2008 University of Washington 2

3 Motivation Lots of (semi) structured data at Google URLs Contents, crawl metadata, links Per-user data: User preference settings, search results Scale is large Billions of URLs, hundreds of million of users, Existing Commercial database doesn t meet the requirements 3

4 Goals Store and manage all the state reliably and efficiently Allow asynchronous processes to update different pieces of data continuously Very high read/write rates Efficient scans over all or interesting subsets of data Often want to examine data changes over time 4

5 BigTable vs. GFS GFS provides raw data storage We need: More sophisticated storage Key - value mapping Flexible enough to be useful Store semi-structured data Reliable, scalable, etc. 5

6 BigTable Bigtable is a distributed storage system for managing large scale structured data Wide applicability Scalability High performance High availability 6

7 Overview Data Model API Implementation Structures Optimizations Performance Evaluation Applications Conclusions 7

8 Data Model Sparse Sorted Multidimensional 8

9 Cell Contains multiple versions of the data Can locate a data using row key, column key and a time stamp Treats data as uninterpreted array of bytes that allow clients to serialize various forms of structured and semi-structured data Supports automatic garbage collection per column family for management of versioned data 9

10 Goals Store and manage all the state reliably and efficiently Allow asynchronous processes to update different pieces of data continuously Very high read/write rates Efficient scans over all or interesting subsets of data Often want to examine data changes over time 10

11 Row Row key is an arbitrary string Access to column data in a row is atomic Row creation is implicit upon storing data Rows ordered lexicographically Rows close together lexicographically usually reside on one or a small number of machines 11

12 Columns Columns are grouped into Column Families: family:optional_qualifier Column family Has associated type information Usually of the same type 12

13 Overview Data Model API Implementation Structures Optimizations Performance Evaluation Applications Conclusions 13

14 API Metadata operations Create/delete tables, column families, change metadata, modify access control list Writes ( atomic ) Set (), DeleteCells(), DeleteRow() Reads Scanner: read arbitrary cells in a BigTable 14

15 Overview Data Model API Implementation Structures Optimizations Performance Evaluation Applications Conclusions 15

16 Tablets Large tables broken into tablets at row boundaries Tablet holds contiguous range of rows Clients can often choose row keys for locality Aim for ~100MB to 200MB of data per tablet Serving machine responsible for ~100 tablets Fast recovery: 100 machine each pick up 1 tablet from failed machine Fine-grained load balancing: Migrate tablets away from overloaded machine 16

17 Tablets and Splitting

18 System Structure Master Metadata operations Load balancing Keep track of live tablet servers Master failure Tablet server Accept read and write to data 18

19 System Structure

20 System Structure read/write

21 System Structure Metadata operations

22 Locating Tablets 3-level hierarchical lookup scheme for tablets Location is ip port of servers in META tables 22

23 Tablet Representation and serving Append only tablet log SSTable on GFS A Sorted map of string to string If you want to find a row data, all the data are contiguous Memtable write buffer When a read comes in, you have to merge SSTable data and uncommitted value. 23

24 Tablet Representation and Serving 24

25 Tablet Representation and Serving 25

26 Compaction Tablet state represented as a set of immutable compacted SSTable files, plus tail of log Minor compaction: When in-memory buffer fills up, it freezes the in-memory buffer and create a new SSTable Major compaction: Periodically compact all SSTables for tablet into new base SSTable on GFS Storage reclaimed from deletions at this point Produce new tables 26

27 Overview Data Model API Implementation Structures Optimizations Performance Evaluation Applications Conclusions 27

28 Goals Reliable system for storing and managing all the states Allow asynchronous processes to update different pieces of data continuously Very high read/write rates Efficient scans over all or interesting subsets of data Often want to examine data changes over time 28

29 Locality Groups Clients can group multiple column families together into a locality group A separate SSTable is generated for each locality group Enable more efficient read Can be declared to be in-memory 29

30 Compression Many opportunities for compression Similar values in columns and cells Within each SSTable for a locality group, encode compressed blocks Keep blocks small for random access Exploit fact that many values very similar 30

31 Goals Reliable system for storing and managing all the states Allow asynchronous processes to update different pieces of data continuously Very high read/write rates Efficient scans over all or interesting subsets of data Often want to examine data changes over time 31

32 Commit log and recovery Single commit log file per tablet server reduce the number of concurrent file writes to GFS Tablet Recovery redo points in log perform the same set of operations from last persistent state 32

33 Overview Data Model API Implementation Structures Optimizations Performance Evaluation Applications Conclusions 33

34 Performance evaluation Test Environment Based on a GFS with 1876 machines 400 GB IDE hard drives in each machine Two-level tree-shaped switched network Performance Tests Random Read/Write Sequential Read/Write 34

35 Single tablet-server performance Random reads is the slowest Transfer 64 KB SSTable over GFS to read 1000 byte Random and sequential writes perform better Append writes to server to a single commit log Group commit 35

36 Performance Scaling Performance didn t scale linearly Load imbalance in multiple server configurations Larger data transfer overhead 36

37 Overview Data Model API Implementation Structures Optimizations Performance Evaluation Applications Conclusions 37

38 Google Analytics A service that analyzes traffic patterns at web sites Raw Click Table Row for each end-user session Row key is (website name, time) Summary Table Extracts recent session data using MapReduce jobs 38

39 Google Earth Use one table for preprocessing and one for serving Different latency requirements (disk vs memory) Each row in the imagery table represents a single geographic segment Column family to store data source One column for each raw image Very sparse 39

40 Personalized Search Row key is a unique userid A column family for each type of user action Replicated across Bigtable clusters to increase availability and reduce latency 40

41 Conclusions Bigtable provides a high scalability, high performance, high availability and flexible storage for structured data. It provides a low level read / write based interface for other frameworks to build on top of it It has enabled Google to deal with large scale data efficiently 41

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