MPEG-l.MPEG-2, MPEG-4

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1 The MPEG Handbook MPEG-l.MPEG-2, MPEG-4 Second edition John Watkinson PT ^PVTPR AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON. NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Focal Press is an imprint of Elsevier

2 Contents Preface Acknozvledgements xi xii Chapter 1 Introduction to compression What is MPEG? Why compression is necessary MPEG-1, 2, 4 and H.264 contrasted Some applications of compression Lossless and perceptive coding Compression principles Video compression Intra-coded compression Inter-coded compression Introduction to motion compensation Film-originated video compression Introduction to MPEG MPEG-2: Profiles and Levels Introduction to MPEG Introduction to H.264 (AVC) Audio compression Sub-band coding Transform coding Predictive coding MPEG bitstreams Drawbacks of compression Compression pre-processing Some guidelines 32 References 33

3 Chapter 2 Fundamentals What is an audio signal? What is a video signal? Types of video What is a digital signal? Sampling Reconstruction Aperture effect Choice of audio sampling rate Video sampling structures The phase-locked loop Quantizing Quantizing error Dither Introduction to digital processing Logic elements Storage elements Binary coding Gain control Floating-point coding Multiplexing principles Packets Statistical multiplexing Timebase correction 89 References 91 Chapter 3 Processing for compression Introduction Transforms Convolution FIR and HR filters FIR filters Interpolation Downsampling filters The quadrature mirror filter Filtering for video noise reduction Warping Transforms and duality The Fourier transform The discrete cosine transform (DCT) The wavelet transform The importance of motion compensation 147

4 Contents vii 3.16 Motion-estimation techniques Block matching Gradient matching Phase correlation Motion-compensated displays Camera-shake compensation Motion-compensated de-interlacing Compression and requantizing 162 References 167 Chapter 4 Audio compression Introduction The decibel Audio level metering The ear The Cochlea Level and loudness Frequency discrimination Critical bands Beats Codec level calibration Quality measurement The limits Compression applications Audio compression tools Sub-band coding Audio compression formats MPEG audio compression MPEG Layer I audio coding MPEG Layer II audio coding MPEG Layer III audio coding MPEG-2 AAC - advanced audio coding Dolby AC MPEG-4 audio MPEG-4 AAC Compression in stereo and Surround sound 221 References 227 Chapter 5 MPEG video compression The eye Dynamic resolution Contrast Colour vision Colour difference signals Progressive or interlaced scan? 245

5 5.7 Spatial and temporal redundancy in MPEG I and P coding Bidirectional coding Coding applications Intra-coding Intra-coding in MPEG-1 and MPEG A bidirectional coder Slices Handling interlaced pictures MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 coders The elementary stream An MPEG-2 decoder MPEG-4 and AVC Video objects Texture coding Shape coding Padding Video object coding Two-dimensional mesh coding Sprites Wavelet-based compression Three-dimensional mesh coding Animation Scaleability Advanced Video Coding (AVC) Motion compensation in AVC An AVC codec AVC profiles and levels Coding artifacts MPEG and concatenation 346 References 352 Chapter 6 MPEG bitstreams Introduction Packets and time stamps Transport streams Clock references Program Specific Information (PSI) Multiplexing Remultiplexing 364 Reference 365 Chapter 7 MPEG applications Introduction 7.2 Telephones

6 Contents ix 7.3 Digital television broadcasting The DVB receiver ATSC CD-Video and DVD Personal video recorders Networks FireWire Broadband networks and ATM ATM AALs 411 References 414 Index 415

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