# RUBY OPERATORS. Ruby Arithmetic Operators: Ruby Comparison Operators:

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1 RUBY OPERATORS Copyright tutorialspoint.com Ruby supports a rich set of operators, as you'd expect from a modern language. Most operators are actually method calls. For example, a + b is interpreted as a.+b, where the + method in the object referred to by variable a is called with b as its argument. For each operator + /, there is a corresponding form of abbreviated assignment operator + = = etc. Ruby Arithmetic Operators: + Addition - Adds values on either side of the operator - Subtraction - Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand * Multiplication - Multiplies values on either side of the operator / Division - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand % Modulus - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder ** Exponent - Performs exponential power calculation on operators a + b will give 30 a - b will give -10 a * b will give 200 b / a will give 2 b % a will give 0 a**b will give 10 to the power 20 Ruby Comparison Operators: == Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true.!= Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. > Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. < Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. >= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes a == b is not true. a! = b is true. a > b is not true. a < b is true. a >= b is not true.

2 true. <= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. <=> Combined comparison operator. Returns 0 if first operand equals second, 1 if first operand is greater than the second and - 1 if first operand is less than the second. === Used to test equality within a when clause of a case statement. a <= b is true. a <=> b returns === 5 returns true..eql? equal? True if the receiver and argument have both the same type and equal values. True if the receiver and argument have the same object id. 1 == 1.0 returns true, but 1.eql?1.0 is false. if aobj is duplicate of bobj then aobj == bobj is true, a.equal?bobj is false but a.equal?aobj is true. Ruby Assignment Operators: = Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand += Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand -= Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand *= Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand /= Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand %= Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand **= Exponent AND assignment operator, Performs exponential power calculation on operators and assign value to the left operand c = a + b will assigne value of a + b into c c += a is equivalent to c = c + a c -= a is equivalent to c = c - a c *= a is equivalent to c = c * a c /= a is equivalent to c = c / a c %= a is equivalent to c = c % a c **= a is equivalent to c = c ** a Ruby Parallel Assignment:

3 Ruby also supports the parallel assignment of variables. This enables multiple variables to be initialized with a single line of Ruby code. For example: a = 10 b = 20 c = 30 may be more quickly declared using parallel assignment: a, b, c = 10, 20, 30 Parallel assignment is also useful for swapping the values held in two variables: a, b = b, c Ruby Bitwise Operators: Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit by bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; now in binary format they will be as follows: a = b = a&b = a b = a^b = ~a = There are following Bitwise operators supported by Ruby language & Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. a & b will give 12, which is Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. a b will give 61, which is ^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. a b will give 49, which is ~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. << Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. >> Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. a will give -61, which is in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number. a << 2 will give 240, which is a >> 2 will give 15, which is Ruby Logical Operators:

4 There are following logical operators supported by Ruby language and or && Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are true, then the condition becomes true. Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non zero, then the condition becomes true. Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non zero, then the condition becomes true. aandb is true. aorb is true. a && b is true. Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non zero, then the condition becomes true.! Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make false. a b is true.! a && b is false. not Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make false. not a && b is false. Ruby Ternary operator: There is one more operator called Ternary Operator. This first evaluates an expression for a true or false value and then execute one of the two given statements deping upon the result of the evaluation. The conditional operator has this syntax:? : Conditional Expression If Condition is true? Then value X : Otherwise value Y Ruby Range operators: Sequence ranges in Ruby are used to create a range of successive values - consisting of a start value, an value and a range of values in between. In Ruby, these sequences are created using the ".." and "..." range operators. The two-dot form creates an inclusive range, while the three-dot form creates a range that excludes the specified high value... Creates a range from start point to point inclusive... Creates a range from start point to point exclusive Creates a range from 1 to 10 inclusive Creates a range from 1 to 9

5 Ruby defined? operators: defined? is a special operator that takes the form of a method call to determine whether or not the passed expression is defined. It returns a description string of the expression, or nil if the expression isn't defined. There are various usage of defined? operator: Usage 1 defined? variable # True if variable is initialized foo = 42 defined? foo defined? \$_ defined? bar # => "local-variable" # => "global-variable" # => nil (undefined) Usage 2 defined? method_call # True if a method is defined defined? puts defined? puts(bar) defined? unpack # => "method" # => nil (bar is not defined here) # => nil (not defined here) Usage 3 # True if a method exists that can be called with super user defined? super defined? super defined? super # => "super" (if it can be called) # => nil (if it cannot be) Usage 4 defined? yield # True if a code block has been passed defined? yield defined? yield # => "yield" (if there is a block passed) # => nil (if there is no block) Ruby dot "." and double Colon "::" Operators: You call a module method by preceding its name with the module's name and a period, and you reference a constant using the module name and two colons. The :: is a unary operator that allows: constants, instance methods and class methods defined within a class or module, to be accessed from anywhere outside the class or module. Remember: in Ruby, classes and methods may be considered constants too. You need just to prefix the :: Const_name with an expression that returns the appropriate class or module object.

6 If no prefix expression is used, the main Object class is used by default. Here are two examples: MR_COUNT = 0 # constant defined on main Object class module Foo MR_COUNT = 0 ::MR_COUNT = 1 # set global count to 1 MR_COUNT = 2 # set local count to 2 puts MR_COUNT # this is the global constant puts Foo::MR_COUNT # this is the local "Foo" constant Second Example: CONST = ' out there' class Inside_one CONST = proc {' in there'} def where_is_my_const ::CONST + ' inside one' class Inside_two CONST = ' inside two' def where_is_my_const CONST puts Inside_one.new.where_is_my_CONST puts Inside_two.new.where_is_my_CONST puts Object::CONST + Inside_two::CONST puts Inside_two::CONST + CONST puts Inside_one::CONST puts Inside_one::CONST.call + Inside_two::CONST Ruby Operators Precedence The following table lists all operators from highest precedence to lowest. Method Operator Description Yes :: Constant resolution operator Yes [ ] [ ]= Element reference, element set Yes ** Exponentiation raisetothepower Yes! ~ + - Not, complement, unary plus and minus methodnamesforthelasttwoare Yes * / % Multiply, divide, and modulo Yes + - Addition and subtraction Yes >> << Right and left bitwise shift Yes & Bitwise 'AND' Yes ^ Bitwise exclusive `OR' and regular `OR' Yes <= < > >= Comparison operators Yes <=> == ===!= =~!~ Equality and pattern match operators! = and! maynotbedefinedasmethods && Logical 'AND'

7 Logical 'OR'..... Range inclusiveandexclusive? : Ternary if-then-else = %= { /= -= += = &= >>= <<= *= &&= = **= defined? not or and Assignment Check if specified symbol defined Logical negation Logical composition NOTE: Operators with a Yes in the method column are actually methods, and as such may be overridden. Processing math: 100%

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