1 How Secure is Wireless? South Carolina Chapter of HIMSS Annual Conference April 24-25, 2003 Richard Gadsden Director of Computer and Network Security Medical University of South Carolina
2 Overview Wireless concepts Brief history of wireless networking Vulnerabilities and threats Risk management Defense in depth Conclusions
3 Why Do Wireless? Demands for mobility Physicians, nurses, other care providers Patients Desire to avoid cabling expense Evolution towards 'ubiquitous' computing
4 Brief History IEEE (2.4GHz, 1-2Mb/s) IEEE b (2.4GHz, 11Mb/s) 2000-present: rapid growth 2002 market est $2B 2006 market projected at $5B
5 History (cont'd) Security awareness April 2001, Peter Shipley 'WarDriving' (WSJ) May 2002, "Best Buy closes wireless registers" (MSNBC) Sep 2002, "Heard of drive-by hacking? Meet drive-by spamming" (ZDNet)
7 Peter Shipley Father of WarDriving?
8 History (cont'd) 2003 Higher speeds IEEE a (5GHz, 54Mb/s) IEEE g (2.4GHz, 54Mb/s, b/c b) New security standard expected IEEE i
9 Topologies Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) Peer-to-peer wireless network Basic Service Set (BSS) Access Point (AP), one or more associated nodes Extended Service Set (ESS) Multiple cooperating APs Modes: Ad-Hoc, Infrastructure
10 Why NOT Do Wireless? Limited, shared network bandwidth per AP Limited RF spectrum (FCC rules) Limited signal strength (interference likely) Immature standards and technology Rapid obsolescence Many security issues All the risks of wired networks, plus more
11 Vulnerabilities and Threats WLANs are designed to broadcast traffic Radio waves want to be free Unauthorized users Unauthorized disclosure or modification Denial of service Tools are readily available to receive, modify, and disrupt wireless network traffic
12 Wireless Hacking Tools Hardware Laptop or handheld with wireless NIC Software (freely available) Antenna(s) To eliminate the need for physical trespass Transportation (optional) GPS (optional)
15 Security Controls: Bare Essentials Access control (user authentication) Prevent unauthorized users Encryption Protect confidentiality and integrity Monitoring and auditing Prevention, detection
16 Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) , intended to provide authentication and encryption Developed during the dark years of US govt export controls on crypto (aka "munitions") Seriously flawed Key distribution left as an exercise for the reader Fundamental flaws in cryptographic design (revealed in a series of papers in )
17 WEP cont'd Aug 2001: WEP is toast AirSnort, WEPCrack WEP today Equivalent to 'No Trespassing Please' sign At least prevents accidental trespass Default configuration?
18 Access Control... Not Two options in standard Open authentication Shared key authentication (WEP) Additional (non-standard) options Closed authentication (Lucent and others) ACLs (lists of allowed client MAC addresses) All can be easily defeated Default configuration?
19 Impact of Flaws You cannot control access to your WLAN Any attacker can associate his wireless device with your APs Shared network (like hub) means he can eavesdrop on any other wireless user's traffic Your WEP encryption keys can be cracked Attacker can eavesdrop on encrypted traffic Attacker can modify encrypted traffic Attacks are undetectable and untraceable
20 Fixing IEEE i (expected late 2003) Clients must authenticate prior to L2 association Leverages 802.1x port-level authentication Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) RADIUS is the usual back-end authn service Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) WEP/TKIP allowed for backward compatibility AES encryption to replace WEP going forward
21 Fixing (cont'd) Wi-Fi Alliance Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Encryption: WEP/TKIP Authentication: 802.1x/EAP WPA being promoted as an interim 'standard'
22 EAP Soup Flavors so far... EAP-MD5, LEAP, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, PEAP Flavors du jour... EAP-TTLS, PEAP IEEE and IETF Will flavor wars be resolved in i? Will all known protocol flaws be addressed? especially Compound Authentication Binding problem
23 Mobile Device Vulnerabilities Portable devices easily lost, stolen Encryption of stored data is dodgy User passwords are too often 'remembered' OS issues Inherently insecure (PalmOS) Impossible to configure securely (Windows) Temptation to store PHI is overwhelming
24 Other Vulnerabilities Vendor implementation decisions Stupid SNMP tricks Insecure AP management interfaces Fault tolerance (availability) Wireless sessions easily disrupted Roaming between APs is not standardized
25 Risks Wireless networking of portable, mobile devices is inherently risky Will always be more risky than wired networking of non-portable devices Are the risks manageable today?
26 Risk Management 1. Assess risks 2. Develop policies Must address wireless security as an extension of enterprise security 3. Implement procedures and controls 4. Education and awareness Users must follow policies and procedures
27 Security Policies Explain what needs protection and why Define responsibilities and consequences Some policy tips A good policy now is better than a great policy later. A simplistic policy that is well distributed and understood is better than a complete policy that has never been seen or accepted. An updated policy is better than an obsolete one.
28 Security Policies cont'd Examples of security policy directives All wireless access points must be centrally managed All wireless access points must be managed in accordance with a set of clearly defined principles No RF networking devices may be operated on campus without written authorization All portable computing devices are subject to enterprise computer security policies
29 Procedures and Controls Infrastructure controls All APs on separate 'untrusted' wired segment Encrypt all WLAN traffic, authenticate all users Safest option: VPN (Layer 3) Alternative: 802.1x/EAP with dynamic WEP (Layer 2) Others: Fortress, Vernier, Blue Socket, etc. Monitor airspace Monitor network Detect and respond to intrusions
30 Procedures and Controls cont'd Mobile device controls Disallow ad-hoc networking mode Require up-to-date AV software Require personal (host-based) firewalls, IDS Local storage of information, e.g. PHI? Disallow Require encryption Educate users on policies and procedures Audit for compliance
31 Defense in Depth All of the currently available 'Layer 2' controls for authentication and encryption are still evolving, still unproven Safest to use them only if combined with additional, proven controls at 'Layer 3' and up VPN SSH, SSL, etc. Understand the risks if single line of defense
32 Conclusions Q: Is wireless networking worth all the risks? A: It depends! Potential benefits? Significant Known risks? Significant Costs of risk mitigation? Significant Proceed with caution, using a sound risk management approach to safeguarding information.
33 References W. Arbaugh, N. Shankar, Y.C. Wan, Your Wireless Network has No Clothes. Technical report, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Maryland, March D. Baker, Wireless (In)Security for Health Care. HIMSS Advicacy White Paper, Science Applications International Corporration, January N. Borisov, I. Goldberg, and D. Wagner, Intercepting Mobile Communications: The Insecurity of Proceedings of MOBICOM 2001,
34 References cont'd S. Fluhrer, I. Mantin, A. Shamir, Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4. Presented to the Eighth Annual Workshop on Selected Areas in Cryptography, August J. Puthenkulam, V. Lortz, A. Palekar, D. Simon, The Compound Authentication Binding Problem. Internet-Draft, March txt P.Shipley, Open WLANs: the early results of WarDriving. J. Walker, Unsafe at any key size: an analysis of the WEP encapsulation, Tech. Rep E. IEEE committee, March r/0-362.zip.
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