C/C++ Programming for Engineers: Working with Integer Variables


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1 C/C++ Programming for Engineers: Working with Integer Variables John T. Bell Department of Computer Science University of Illinois, Chicago Preview Every good program should begin with a large comment block explaining what the program does, who wrote it and when. How do you indicate a comment in C/C++? A. // B. % C. /*... */ D. & E. Either A or C 2 1
2 C++ has five basic types of data: Integers Whole numbers with no fractions. Floating Point Numbers that may contain fractions, and have a larger range due to exponents. Characters Small integer codes representing individual letters and other symbols. Strings Collections of zero or more characters. Booleans Variables holding True or False. 3 Integers come in many flavors: int The natural size for the machine. short May use less bits than an int. long May use more bits than an int. long long Twice as many bits as a long unsigned No negatives, but twice the positives. char 8 bits, usually used to hold characters. wchar 16 bits, wide char for more symbols. 4 2
3 If a byte is 8 bits, how many bits are in an int? A. 8 B. 16 C. 32 D. 64 E. It depends on the computer hardware and the compiler being used. # of bits: short int long < long long 5 All variables must be declared before use, by specifying their type: int i, j, k; int numstudents; int natoms, nelectrons, nprotons; // Number of students // Number of atoms // Number of electrons // Number of protons. Variables may be initialized when declared: int ncarbons = 0, nhydrogens, noxygens = 16; Uninitialized variables should be assumed random. 6 3
4 Variable name ( Identifier ) rules Identifiers must begin with a letter ( or underscore. ) Additional characters may be letters, numbers, or underscores. Identifiers are case sensitive: ball Ball BALL Characters beyond a certain number ( 32? ) are ignored. Identifiers may not be C++ reserved words. 7 Variable name ( Identifier ) conventions Integers often begin with i to n. Floating point with a to h, m to z. counters with n or num: natoms, numstudents normal variables begin with lower case. Globals begin with upper case. CONSTANTS in all upper case. Multiword variables in camel case: newhouse Alternate using underscores: new_house Use meaningful names from application domain. 8 4
5 Assigning values to variables The assignment operator, =, takes the value from the right and stores it in the variable on the left: X = 7; // Store 7 in X X = 5 + Y; // Add 5 to Y, store result in X X = X + 9; // Add 9 to original value of X, // Store result back into X. 9 Some expressions from math class are not legal in C++, and vice versa: X = Y + 7; // Legal in C++ and math class X Y = 7; // Legal in math, not in C++ 7 = X Y; // Legal in math, not in C++ X = X + 42; // Legal in C++, contradiction in math class. 10 5
6 Basic arithmetic using integers + ( plus ) adds two numbers and yields the result. X = Y + 7;  ( minus ) can be used two ways: Unary takes the negative: X = Y; Binary subtracts and yields difference: X = Y 10; * ( asterisk or star ) multiplies two numbers and yields the product: X = 3 * 5; 11 DANGER DANGER! Integer division truncates fractions! / ( slash ) divides the number on the left by the number on the right: X = Y / 2; 15 / 5 yields 3 5 / 2 yields 2 99 / 100 yields 0 centigrade = 5 / 9 * ( fahrenheit 32 ); // Stores 0 for all values of Fahrenheit // ( 5.0 / 9.0 would yield correct results. ) 12 6
7 The modulo operator, %, yields the remainder after division 137 % 10 yields 7 5 % 3 yields 2 3 % 5 yields 3 // 3 / 5 is zero, remainder 3 N % 2 yields 0 if N is even, 1 if N is odd N % M yields an integer from 0 to M1 inclusive, regardless of the value of N o card = rand( ) % 52; // Yields random 0 to Precedence and Associativity *, /, and % have equal precedence, all higher than + and binary ( which are also equal to each other. ) All these operators associate left to right, within operators of equal precedence. So all *, /, and % would be evaluated first, from left to right, followed by all + and binary from left to right. ( Unary has higher precedence than *, /, % ) ( ) can be used to override default precedence. 14 7
8 What is stored as a result of this statement? N = / 2; A. 4 B. 5 C. 6 D. 6.5 E Combination Assignment Operators It is so common to modify a variable and then store the result back into the same variable that a special set of operators exists: Operator Example Equivalent X += Y; X = X + Y; X = Y; X = X Y; X *= Y; X = X * Y; X /= Y; X = X / Y; X %= Y; X = X % Y; X *= Y + Z; X = X * ( Y + Z ); // NOT X = X * Y + Z; Note that all assignment operators have lower precedence than any math operators. E.g. + before *= 16 8
9 What is stored as a result of this statement if N is originally 10? N *= / 2; A B. 40 C D. 60 E Autoincrement (++) and Autodecrement () Operators adjust integers by one: i++;, as a standalone statement, is equivalent to i += 1; or i = i + 1; i;, as a standalone statement, is equivalent to i = 1; or i = i  1; Autoincrement and autodecrement are frequently used in loops, which we will get to a little later. ( Zyante covers ++ and  in the loop chapter. ) 18 9
10 ++ and  Prefix versus Postfix The autoincrement and autodecrement operators come in two forms: Prefix puts the operator before the variable, e.g. ++N or N Postfix puts the operator after the variable, e.g. N++ or N As standalone statements the two forms are exactly equivalent, and only change the variable. 19 The difference appears when the operator is used as part of a larger expression Postfix uses the original value of the variable: int copy, N = 3; copy = N++; // Stores 3 in copy; Changes N to 4 Prefix uses the new value of the variable: int copy, N = 3; copy = ++N; // Stores 4 in copy; Changes N to
11 Precedence and Associativity of ++ and  Postfix N++ and N have higher precedence than anything we have seen, and are evaluated left to right. Prefix ++N and N have the next lower precedence, equal to unary  and!. This group of operators is evaluated right to left. ( Example: M =  ++N; evaluates ++, then . ) Prefix / Postfix still determines whether to use the original or new values in the expression. 21 What value is used for N in this location? int copy, N = 3; copy = 3 * N++ * 15.0 / N; A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. Error E. Undefined 22 11
12 What value is used for N in this location? int copy, N = 3; copy = 3 * N++ * 15.0 / N; A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. Error E. Undefined Danger! Danger! Never use the same variable more than once in the same expression if it is autoincremented or autodecremented anywhere in the expression! 23 Review In the following statement, which of the following is the correct order in which the operators will be evaluated? A *= B + C / D E++; A. *=, +, /, , ++ B. /, +, , *=, ++ C. ++, /, +, , *= D. ++, +, /, , *= E. None of the above. The correct order of operations is not listed here
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