Operators. Lecture 3 COP 3014 Spring January 16, 2018

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1 Operators Lecture 3 COP 3014 Spring 2018 January 16, 2018

2 Operators Special built-in symbols that have functionality, and work on operands operand an input to an operator Arity - how many operands an operator takes unary operator has one operand binary operator has two operands ternary operator has three operands Examples: int x, y = 5, z; z = 10; // assignment operator (binary) x = y + z; // addition (binary operator) x = -y; //-y is a unary operation (negation) x++; // unary (increment)

3 Operators cascading - linking of multiple operators, especially of related categories, together in a single statement: cascading arithmetic operators x = a + b + c - d + e; // cascading assignment operators x = y = z = 3; Precedence - rules specifying which operators come first in a statement containing multiple operators x = a + b * c; // b * c happens first, since * //has higher precedence than + Associativity - rules specifying which operators are evaluated first when they have the same level of precedence. Most (but not all) operators associate from left to right.

4 Assignment Operator Value on the right side (R-value) is assigned to (i.e. stored in) the location (variable) on the left side (L-value) R-value any expression that evaluates to a single value (name comes from right side of assignment operator) L-value A storage location! (not any old expression). A variable or a reference to a location. (name comes from left side of assignment operator Typical Usage variable name = expression The assignment operator returns a reference to the L-value Example: x = 5; y = 10.3; z = x + y; // right side can be an expression a + 3 = b; // ILLEGAL! Left side must be a // storage location

5 Assignment Operator Associates right-to-left x = y = z = 5; // z = 5 evaluated first, returns z, which is stored in y and so on Use appropriate types when assigning values to variables: int x, y; x = 5843; y = -1234; // assign integers to int variables double a, b; a = 12.98; b = ; //assign decimal numbers to floats char letter, symb; letter = Z ; symb = \$ ; // character literals to char types Be careful to not confuse assignment = with comparison ==

6 Arithmetic Operators Name Symbol Arity Usage Add + binary x + y Subtract - binary x - y Multiply * binary x * y Divide / binary x / y Modulus % binary x % y Minus - unary -x Division is a special case Modulus % not legal for floating point types. / gives floating point result double x = 19.0, y = 5.0, z; z = x / y; // z is now 3.8

7 Arithmetic Operators For integer types, / gives the quotient, and % gives the remainder (as in long division) int x = 19, y = 5, q, r; q = x / y; // q is 3 r = x % y; // r is 4 An operation on two operands of the same type returns the same type An operation on mixed types (if compatible) returns the larger type int x = 5; float y = 3.6; z = x + y; // what does z need to be? // x + y returns a float.

8 Operator Precedence Arithmetic has usual precedence 1. parentheses 2. Unary minus 3. *, /, and % 4. + and - 5. operators on same level associate left to right Many different levels of operator precedence (about 18) When in doubt, can always use parentheses Example z = a - b * -c + d / (e - f); // 7 operators in this statement What order are they evaluated in?

9 Some short-cut assignment operators (with arithmetic) v += e; means v = v + e; v -= e; means v = v - e; v *= e; means v = v * e; v /= e; means v = v / e; v %= e; means v = v % e; Please look at the Note on Operator Precedence on the course website.

10 Increment and Decrement Operators These are shortcut operators for adding or subtracting 1 from a variable. Shortcut for x=x+1 ++x; // pre-increment (returns reference to new x) x++; // post-increment (returns value of old x) Shortcut for x=x-1 --x; // pre-decrement x--; // post-decrement Pre-increment: incrementing is done before the value of x is used in the rest of the expression Post-increment: incrementing is done after the value of x is used in the rest of the expression

11 Increment and Decrement Operators Note - this only matters if the variable is actually used in another expression. The two statements (x++ and ++x)by themselves have the same effect. Examples int x = 5, count = 7; result = x * ++count; // result = 40, count = 8 int x = 5, count = 7; result = x * count++; // result = 35, count = 8

12 Automatic Type Conversions Typically, matching types are expected in expressions If types don t match, ambiguity must be resolved There are some legal automatic conversions bewteen built-in types. Rules can be created for doing automatic type conversions between user-defined types, too For atomic data types, can go from smaller to larger types when loading a value into a storage location. General rule of thumb: Allowed if no chance for partial data loss. char -> short -> int -> long -> float -> double -> long double Should avoid mixing unsigned and signed types, if possible

13 Automatic Type Conversions: Examples int i1, i2; double d1, d2; char c1; unsigned int u1; d1 = i1; // legal. c1 = i1; // illegal. trying to stuff int into char i1 = d1; // illegal. Might lose decimal point data. i1 = c1; // legal u1 = i1; // dangerous (possibly no warning) d2 = d1 + i2; // result of double + int is a double d2 = d1 / i2; // floating point division (at least // one operand a float type)

14 Explicit type conversions (casting) Older C-style cast operations look like: c1 = (char)i2; // cast a copy of the value of i2 as a char, and assign to c1 i1 = (int)d2; // cast a copy of the value of d2 as an int, and assign to i1 Better to use newer C++ cast operators. For casting between regular variables, use static cast c1 = static cast<char>(i2); i1 = static cast<int>(d2); Just for completeness, the newer C++ cast operators are: static cast dynamic cast const cast reinterpret cast

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