# Advanced Computer Networks. Medium Access, WLAN & Bluetooth

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1 Advanced Computer Networks Medium Access, WLAN & Bluetooth Patrick Stuedi Spring Semester Tuesday 11 March 2014

2 Last Week Signal Propagation Path loss model Log normal shadowing model Packet reception SINR Theory vs Reality Roofnet Modulation ASK, FSK, PSK Spread Spectrum Frequency Hopping Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum MAC Hidden and Exposed Terminal Space Division Multiplexing Frequency Division Multiplexing Time Divison Multiplexing 2 Tuesday 11 March 2014

3 Today Medium Access (Cont) TDMA CDMA XOR in the AIR BMAC Wireless Networks Bluetooth Low-power MAC 3 Tuesday 11 March 2014

4 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Same principle as DSSS, but used to multiplex different stations Each station gets its own unique chipping sequence To send 1 bit, station sends chipping sequence To send 0 bit, station sends complement of chipping sequence Remember: this increases the bandwidth required by each stations All stations are in sync, transmitted chip sequences get superimposed Receiver can decode signal of a specific transmitter by multiplying the received signal with the chipping sequence of the transmitter 4 Tuesday 11 March 2014

5 CDMA (2) What are good chipping sequences (codes) for users? A set of codes is optimal for CDMA if the codes are pairwise orthogonal Definition of orthogonal is same as with vectors Two codes S, T are orthogonal if S*T = 0, with S T= 1 m S i T i m=length of codes Bipolar notation: binary 0 is represented as -1 Simplifies calculation (in practice 0,1 model together with XOR) 5 Tuesday 11 March 2014

6 CDMA: Simple example Codes of two senders A and B Ak = (-1,+1,-1,-1,+1+1) is code of sender A Bk = (+1,+1,-1,+1,-1,+1) is code of sender B Sender A wants to send bit Ad = 1 As = +1*(-1,+1,-1,-1,+1+1) = (-1,+1,-1,-1,+1+1) Sender B wants to send bit Bd = 0 Bs = -1*(+1,+1,-1,+1,-1,+1) = (-1,-1,+1,-1,+1,-1) Both signals are superimposed, what is received at a receiver is R = As + Bs = (-2,0,0,-2,+2,0) To decode the signal of sender A R*Ak = 1/6 * (-1,+1,-1,-1,+1+1) * (-2,0,0,-2,+2,0) = 1 To decode the signal of sender B: R*Bk = 0 6 Tuesday 11 March 2014

7 Why does this work R*Ak = (As + Bs + Cs + ) * Ak Ad*Ak*Ak + Bd*Bk*Ak + Cd*Ck*Ak + = pairwise orthogonal codes What if not all signals are equally strong? Assume R' = As + 5*Bs = (-6,-4,+4,-6,+6,-4) Decoding B: R'*Bk = -5 0, A: R'*Ak = 1? Relative differences are smaller, decoding becomes more difficult 7 Tuesday 11 March 2014

8 Near/Far Problem Terminals A and B send, C receives The signal of B hides A's signal C cannot receive A Example: for a path loss exponent of 4, P(new)/P(far)=(1000/50)^4=52dB Common problem in CDMA Solutions: Dynamic power adjustment: close transmitters use less power, far away transmitter use higher power - Affects battery life - Power control runaway problem: terminals increase transmit power in a loop until until transmitters hit a power wall 8 Tuesday 11 March 2014

9 CDMA Near/Far Example Assume B's signal is received 5 times stronger R = As + 5*Bs = (-6,-4,+4,-6,+6,-4) To decode the signal of sender B: R*Bk = -5 Might be detected as 0 To decode the signal of sender A: R*Ak = 1/6 *30 = 1 Value too low: might be detected as 0 (e.g., noise) 9 Tuesday 11 March 2014

10 Comparison SDMA/TDMA/FDMA/CDMA Approach SDMA TDMA FDMA CDMA Idea Segment space into cells Segment time into disjoint timeslots Segment frequency band into disjoint subbands Spread the spectrum using orthogonal codes Terminals Only one terminal can be active in one cell All terminals are active for short periods of time on same frequency Every terminal has its own frequency All terminals can be active at the same place at the same moment Advantages Very simple Established, flexible Simple, robust Flexible, less frequency planning needed Disadvantages Inflexible antennas Synchronization difficult Inflexible, frequencies are scarce resource Needs complicated power control 10 Tuesday 11 March 2014

11 COPE: Wireless Network Coding Consider the following scenario: 11 Tuesday 11 March 2014

12 COPE Approach Increased throughput: saved transmission can be used to send more data 12 Tuesday 11 March 2014

13 Beyond Duplex Flows Source S1 and S2 want to send a data packet to destinations D1 and D2 13 Tuesday 11 March 2014

14 COPE Snooping Every node snoops on all packets A node stores all heard packets for a limited time Node sends Reception Reports to tell its neighbors what packets it heard Reports are piggybacked on packets If no packets to send, periodically send reports 14 Tuesday 11 March 2014

15 COPE Coding To send packet p to neighbor A, XOR p with packets already known to A Thus, A can decode But how can multiple neighbors benefit from a single transmission? 15 Tuesday 11 March 2014

16 COPE Example 16 Tuesday 11 March 2014

17 COPE Example P1 + P2 Bad coding C can decode but A can't 17 Tuesday 11 March 2014

18 COPE Example P1 + P3 Better coding both C and A can decode 18 Tuesday 11 March 2014

19 COPE Example P1 + P3 + P4 Best coding Nodes A, C, D can decode 19 Tuesday 11 March 2014

20 Overview of Wireless Networks Wireless Personal Area Networks IEEE (Bluetooth), IrDa, Zigbee, sensor networks, etc. Wireless Local Area Networks IEEE , a, b, g, etc. (infrastructure and ad hoc) Cellular Area Network GSM, UMTS, LTE, WiMAX 20 Tuesday 11 March 2014

21 Ingredients of Wireless Systems Physical Layer: FSK, BFSK, DSSS, OFDM, QPSK,... Media Access: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA,... Wireless System: , Bluetooth, GSM, 3G, LTE, Network Architecture, Mobility, Network Management, etc. Tuesday 11 March 2014

22 IEEE Personal Area Networks 22 Tuesday 11 March 2014

23 The Family Target deployment environment: communication of personal devices working together Short range Low power Low cost Small number of devices Four standards: IEEE Bluetooth IEEE Interoperability (e.g., Wifi) IEEE High Data Rate WPAN IEEE Low Data Rate WPAN (ZigBee) 23 Tuesday 11 March 2014

24 Bluetooth - Overview First Bluetooth Specification 1994 by Ericsson Universal radio interface for ad-hoc wireless connectivity Interconnecting mobile phones, handset, laptops, bar code readers, GPS receivers, printers, etc.. Cheap, low power, short range (up to 100m) Physical layer: 2.4 GHz band FHSS, 79 Channels (1 Mhz Wide) Medium Access: TDMA Data rates available to applications: Up to specificiation version 1.2: 0.7 Mbit/s Specification 2.0: 2.1 Mbit/s Specification 3.0: 24 Mbit/s (Bluetooth link only used for negation, data over ) Specification 4.0: Added Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), new protocol stack Range: Up to 100m 24 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 24

25 Bluetooth Protocol Stack Service Discovery Logical Channels Radio Access Above Host Controller Interface (HCI): implemented in Software 25 Connection Management Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 25

26 Piconet Piconet = Collection of BT devices connected in an ad hoc fashion One unit acts as master and the others as slaves for the lifetime of the piconet Each piconet has a unique hopping S P M S P pattern determined by the master SB S Participation in a piconet = synchronization to hopping sequence P SB Each piconet has one master and up to 7 simultaneous active slaves (> 200 could be parked) 26 M=Master S=Slave P=Parked SB=Standby Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 26

27 Forming a Piconet Any two or more device can form a piconet The device establishing the piconet becomes the master Master sends its clock and device ID to the slaves Hopping pattern determined by the device ID, the phase is determined by the clock of the master Adressing: Active Member Address (AMA, 3 bit) Parked Member Address (PMA, 8 bit) 27 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 27

28 Scatternets Scatternet = group of piconets Device can participate multiple piconets Jumping between the hopping sequences of the different piconets Before leaving a device informs the current master that it will be unavailable for a certain amount of time P S S M=Master S=Slave P=Parked SB=Standby S SB P M SB 28 S P S M P SB Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 28

29 Baseband Layer Frequency Selection 625 µs f k f k+1 f k+2 f k+3 f k+4 f k+5 f k+6 M S M S M S M t f k f k+3 f k+4 f k+5 f k+6 M S M S M t f k f k+1 f k+6 M S M t Master sends in all odd slots, slaves share even slots 1-slot, 3-slot or 5-slot packets possible Frequency pattern remains regardless 29of packet size (why?) Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 29

30 Link Types SCO (Synchronous connection-oriented) Mostly used for voice The master reserves two consecutive slots (forward and return slots) at fixed intervals A master can support up to 3 SCO links to the same slave or to different slaves ACL (Asynchronous connectionless) Typically used for data Variable frame size (1,3,5 slots) Master uses polling, a slave may only answer if addressed in the preceding slot Maximum of 1 ACL link per master/slave No direct slave to slave communication, packet transmission only between master and slave 30 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 30

31 Link Types - Example Every sixth slot used for SCO link between master and slave 1 ACL links use single or multiple slots (note: hopping sequence is independent of the transmission of packets) 31 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 31

32 Robustness ACL links can be protected with ARQ scheme (Automatic Repeat Request) One extra bit (ACK, NAK) is enough because master/slave have to send alternating 32 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 32

33 Link Manager Connection Establishment Bluetooth link manager is responsible for authentication, synchronization, power control and device state switching A Bluetooth device can be in one of several states: Standby: - Each 2048th slot a device listens on 32 of the 79 channels Process connection establishement consists of three states Inquiry: search for other devices Page: set up connections (e.g., hopping sequence) When device is connected Device is either in the transmit or the connected state Extra low-power states Sniff: listen to the piconet at a reduced rate (custom) Hold: device stops ACL transmission Park: device relases AMA address, device still 33 synchronized Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 33

34 States of a Bluetooth device (power consumption: sniff > hold > park) 34 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 34

35 L2CAP Logical Link Control and Adaption Protocol Simple data link protocol on top of Baseband ACL link L2CAP provides three different channels Connectionless: typically used to broadcast, master to all slaves Connection-oriented: bi-directional channel between master and slave Signaling: used to exchange control information Segmentation and re-assembly of user data L2CAP accepts up to 64KB packets This needs to be chopped into smaller basedband packets (5 slot ACL link can carry a maximum of 339 bytes per packet) 35 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 35

36 L2CAP (2) Channel identifiers (CID) used to demultiplex L2CAP channels Signaling used CID of 1 Connectionless channels have CID 2 at slave and a dynamically assigned CID at master - Additional protocol/service demultiplexer (PSM) needed for connectionless channels Connection-oriented channels get dynamically assigned CID at both master and slave 36 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 36

37 Higher layer protocols Telephony Control library 802.x Emulation 37 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 37

38 Low Energy MAC Bluetooth is low power, but still not low enough power for coin cells and energy harvesting applications Things have data Web services want this data MAC protocols for extremely low power BMAC/SMAC ZigBee Bluetooth Low Energy 38 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 38

39 Sensor Networks: Applications (1) Monitor temperature of goods in supermarket (attach sensor nodes to fridges) Monitor environment of plants in agriculture (solar radiation, temperature, humidity) 39 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 39

40 Sensor Networks: Applications (2) Earthquake detection Earthquake speed ~5-10km/h, Instant detection can give warning ~30second before the shockwave hits a city 200km from the epicenter Structure Monitoring in buildings Understand interactions between ground motions and structure foundation 40 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 40

41 Concept of operation Form Ad Hoc Network (no fixed Infrastructure) Gather data and Forward it to the user ('sink' or gateway node) 41 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 41

42 S-MAC Main sources of energy waste Re-transmissions Overhearing: node picks up packets destined for other nodes Approach: coarse-grained TDMA-like sleep/awake cycles frame listen sleep listen sleep time All nodes choose and announce awake schedules synchronize to awake schedules of neighboring nodes Uses RTS/CTS to resolve contention during listen intervals And allows interfering nodes to go to sleep during data exchange 42 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 42

43 S-MAC Problem: Nodes may have to follow multiple schedules to avoid network partition Different schedules may increase end-to-end latency Schedule 1+2 Schedule 1 Schedule 2 43 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 43

44 B-MAC Packets transmitted with preamble Nodes periodically wake up and stay awake if they overhear a preamble Shortcomings: Problematic in case of shorter packets: relatively long active period 44 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 44

45 Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) New radio and protocol stack Mostly new PHY: not backward compatible with Bluetooth New advertising mechanism for easy of discovery Extremely low power Bandwidth: 1Mbit/s Common with regular Bluetooth Star topology Frequency hopping Part of Bluetooth 4.0 Dual and single stack implementations: advantage of ZigBee Part of mobile phones (e.g., iphone 4S) Designed to enable the Internet of things 45 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 45

46 BLE Use Cases: Internet of Things Everyday objects can become sensors......and monitor things 46 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 46

47 Internet of Things (2) Things upload data to the cloud using mobile phones as gateway Bluetooth Low Energy has gateway functionally built-in 47 Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 47

48 References XORs in The Air: Practical Wireless Network Coding, Sachin Katti, Hariharan Rahul, Wenjun Hu, Dina Katabi, Muriel Medard, Jon Crowcroft, Sigcomm 2006 Versatile Low Power Media Access for Wireless Sensor Networks, Joseph Polastre, Jason Hill, David Culler, Sensys 2004 Bluetooth Low Energy, Joe Decuir, IEEE Communications Society Tuesday 11 March 2014 Department of Computer Science 48

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