# Chapter 4: Basic C Operators

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1 Chapter 4: Basic C Operators In this chapter, you will learn about: Arithmetic operators Unary operators Binary operators Assignment operators Equalities and relational operators Logical operators Conditional operator 1

2 Arithmetic Operators There are 2 types of arithmetic operators in C: unary operators operators that require only one operand. binary operators. operators that require two operands. 2

3 Numeric Data Types 3

4 Data Type Limits 4

5 Unary Operator C operation Operator Example Explanation Positive + a = +3 Negative - b = -4 Increment ++ i++ Equivalent to i = i + 1 Decrement - - i - - Equivalent to i = i - 1 5

6 PRE / POST Increment It is also possible to use ++i and --i instead of i++ and i-- However, the two forms have a slightly yet important difference. Consider this example: int a = 9; printf( %d\n, a++); printf( %d, a); The output would be:

7 PRE / POST Increment cont But if we have: int a = 9; printf( %d\n, ++a); printf( %d, a); The output would be: a++ would return the current value of a and then increment the value of a ++a on the other hand increment the value of a before returning the value 7

8 The following table illustrates the difference between the prefix and postfix modes of the increment and decrement operator. Assuming we have the following variables declaration. ++ Or -- Statement R = count++; R = ++count; R = count --; R = --count; int R = 10, count=10; Equivalent Statements R = count; count = count + 1 R Count count = count + 1; R = count; R = count; count = count 1; 10 9 Count = count 1; R = count; 9 9 8

9 Binary Operators C operation Operator Example Addition + b = a + 3 Subtraction - b = a - 4 Multiplication * b = a * 3 Division / b = a / c Modulus % b = a % c The division of variables of type integer will always produce a variable of type integer as the result. You could only use modulus (%) operation on integer variables. 9

10 The division of variables of type integer will always produce a variable of type integer as the result. Example int a = 7, b; b = a/2; printf( %d\n, b); Since b is declared as an integer, the result of a/2 is 3, not Press any key to continue 10

11 You could only use modulus (%) operation on integer variables/integer division. Example int a = 7, b, c; b = a%2; c = a/2; printf( b = %d\n, b); printf( c = %d\n, c); b = 1 c = 3 Press any key to continue Modulus will result in the remainder of a/ a/2 integral a%2 remainder 11

12 Numeric Conversion If a value is assigned to a variable that has a different data type, a conversion will occur during execution. e.g. int a;... a = 12.8; Conversion from low order to high order is safe, but not the other way round. High long double double float long integer integer Low short integer 12

13 Overflow and Underflow Occurs when result of an arithmetic operation exceeds (either too large or too small) allowable range. Overflow example: x = 2.5e30; y = 1.0e30 z = x*y Underflow example: x = 2.5e-30; y = 1.0e30 z = x/y 13

14 Assignment Operators Assignment operators are used to combine the '=' operator with one of the binary arithmetic operators In the following example, all operations starting from c = 9 Operator Example Equivalent Statement Results += c += 7 c = c + 7 c = 16 -= c -= 8 c = c 8 c = 1 *= c *= 10 c = c * 10 c = 90 /= c /= 5 c = c / 5 c = 1 %= c %= 5 c = c % 5 c = 4 14

15 Precedence Rules Precedence rules come into play when there is a mixed of arithmetic operators in one statement. For example: x = 3 * a - ++b%3; The rules specify which of the operators will be evaluated first. Precedence Level Operator Associativity 1 (highest) () left to right 2 unary right to left 3 * / % left to right left to right 5 (lowest) = += -= *= /= %= right to left 15

16 Precedence Rules cont For example: x = 3 * a - ++b % 3; how would this statement be evaluated? What is the value for X, given the following values: a = 2, b = 4? x = 3 * a - ++b % 3; x = 3 * a - 5 % 3; x = 3 * a - 5 % 3; x = 6-5 % 3; x = 6-2 x = 4 16

17 If we intend to have the statement x = 3 * a - ++b % 3; evaluated differently from the way specified by the precedence rules, we need to specify it using parentheses ( ) Consider having the following statement: x = 3 * ((a - ++b)%3); In this case, the expression inside a parentheses will be evaluated first. The inner parentheses will be evaluated earlier compared to the outer parentheses. 17

18 x = 3 * ((a - ++b)%3); how would this statement be evaluated? What is the value for X, given the following values: a = 2, b = 4? x = 3 * ((a - ++b)%3); x = 3 * ((a - 5)%3); x = 3 * ((-3)%3); x = 3 * 0; x = 0; 18

19 Given the following expression, what will be the value of x, a and b once the expression be evaluated? Given the following values: a = 2, b = 4? x = 3 * ++a b--%3; x = 3 * ++a b--%3; 19 a 2 b 4 x = 3 * 3 b--%3; a 3 b 4 x = 3 * 93 b--%3; x = 9 b--%3; 1; x = 8; b = b -1; b = 3; a 3 b 3

20 Mathematical Functions Engineering problem solving usually requires the use of formula beyond addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Many expressions require the use of exponentiation, logarithms, exponentials and trigonometric functions. Use the following preprocessor directive to use the elementary and trigonometric math functions in C. #include <math.h> Available functions include fabs(x), sqrt(x), pow(x,y), ceil(x), floor(x), exp(x), log(x) and log10(x), sin(x), cos(x) and tan(x). 20

21 Equality and Relational Operators Equality Operators: Operator Example Meaning == x == y x is equal to y!= x!= y x is not equal to y Relational Operators: Operator Example Meaning > x > y x is greater than y < x < y x is less than y >= x >= y x is greater than or equal to y <= x <= y x is less than or equal to y 21

22 Logical Operators Logical operators are useful when we want to test multiple conditions. There are 3 types of logical operators and they work the same way as the boolean AND, OR and NOT operators. && - Logical AND All the conditions must be true for the whole expression to be true. Example: if (a == 10 && b == 9 && d == 1) means that the if statement is only true when a == 10 and b == 9 and d == 1. 22

23 Logical Operators cont - Logical OR The truth of one condition is enough to make the whole expression true. Example: if (a == 10 b == 9 d == 1) means the if statement is true when either one of a, b or d has the right value.! - Logical NOT (also called logical negation) Reverse the meaning of a condition Example: if (!(points > 90)) means if points not bigger than

24 Conditional Operator The conditional operator (?:) is used to simplify an if/else statement. Syntax: Condition? Expression1 : Expression2 The statement above is equivalent to: if (Condition) Expression1 else Expression2 24

25 Conditional Operator cont Example 1: if/else statement: if (total > 60) grade = P else grade = F ; conditional statement: (total > 60)? grade = P : grade = F ; OR grade =( total > 60)? P : F ; 25

26 Conditional Operator cont Example 2: if/else statement: if (total > 60) printf( Passed!!\n ); else printf( Failed!!\n ); Conditional Statement: printf( %s!!\n, total > 60? Passed : Failed ); 26

27 Practice 1 Write a program to compute the area of a rectangle with sides a and b. The values of a and b are entered from standard input. Write a program to compute the radius of a circle having the same area as that of a rhombus with diagonals d 1 and d 2. The values of d 1 and d 2 are entered from standard input. 27

28 Practice 2 Write the program for height estimation problem solved in Chapter 2 earlier. 28

29 SUMMARY This chapter exposed you the operators used in C Arithmetic operators Assignment operators Equalities and relational operators Logical operators Conditional operator Precedence levels come into play when there is a mixed of arithmetic operators in one statement. Pre/post fix - effects the result of statement 29

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