# Dispersion Polarization

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1 Dispersion Polarization Phys Phys 2435: 22: Chap. 33, 31, Pg 1

2 Dispersion New Topic Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 2

3 The Visible Spectrum Remember that white light contains all the colors of the s p e c t r u m each color in the spectrum has a different wavelength and frequency (recall c = λ f ) Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 3

4 Dispersion We know the speed of light changes in a medium: v = c / n When light travels from one medium to another: wavelength changes too! (recall that v = f λ ) frequency does not change n c λ λ = = 0 = 0 v f f λ λ n refractive index depends on λ (different n for different colors) n decreases as λ increases λ Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 4

5 n decreases as λ increases Dispersion for red light (λ( = 700 nm) n smaller (less bending) for blue light (λ( = 400 nm) n bigger (more bending) spreading (dispersion( dispersion) ) of colors due to refraction! n =! 0! Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 5

6 How does a rainbow form? light is refracted by spherical water droplets red light is bent at a lesser angle (top( of rainbow) violet light is bent at a greater angle (bottom( of rainbow) Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 6

7 A Diamond is Forever Total internal reflection High n=2.4. So critical angle is about 25 degrees Many internal reflections before exiting. Dispersion Colors are separated after many travels, before emerging individually and brilliantly. Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 7

8 Polarization New Topic Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 8

9 Polarization The E field in an EM wave is perpendicular to the direction of travel. But there are many possible orientations for the E field! polarized light unpolarized light 1 electron E field oscillates in one direction millions of electrons E field oscillates in all directions 3-D view: 3-D view: In polarized light, all of the electric fields in the wave oscillate in the same direction Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 9

10 Polarization by Absorption Three ways to polarize light 1) scattering 2) reflection 3) absorption E field of wave Wave absorbed E field of wave Wave passes through Polarization by absorption: Vertical components of wave are absorbed by antenna Horizontal components pass through unpolarized long thin molecules (light) wires (radio waves) polaroid polarized Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 10

11 Polarizer Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 11

12 How much light gets through? Intensity of the outgoing polarized light: I = I 0 cos 2 φ Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 12

13 Example: two polarizers in combination If the incident light has intensity I 0, what are the intensities transmittied by the 1 st and 2 nd polarizers if the angle between the axes of the two filters is 30 degrees? The intensity after passing the 1 st filter is I 0 /2. After passing the 2nd filter it becomes I 0 /2 x cos = 3I 0 /8. Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 13

14 Polarization by Reflection θ p is called polarizing angle. Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 14

15 Polarization by Reflection Polarizing angle (Brewster s Angle): reflected light is totally linear-polarized perpendicular to the incident plane when the incident angle is given by tan! p = n n b a The refracted light is partially polarized parallel to the incident plane By Snell s law, n sin! = n sin!, we can get a p b b! p +! b 0 = 90 The reflected light is perpendicular to the refracted light if incident at Brewster s angle. Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 15

16 Example: Polarization from air to water from water to air nb tan! p = = n a nb tan! p = = n a Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 16

17 Circular Polarization Superposition of two linearly-polarized waves at right angles with each other. right circularly-polarized: clockwise left circularly-polarized: counter-clockwise Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 17

18 Why is the sky blue,, clouds white,, and sunset red? Scattering of light: Light can be absorbed by molecules and reemittied in a variety of directions. The intensity of the scattered light is proportional to frequency to the 4 th power (or inversely proportional to fourth power of the wavelength). This is called Rayleigh scattering). The intensity ratio for the two ends of the visible light is (blue/red) 4 = (700nm/400nm) 4 = 9.4 that s why the sky is blue Cloud has high concentration of water molecules. Light of all wavelengths is essentially scattered out of the cloud. that s why the cloud is white. Near sunset, sunlight has to travel long distances to reach you. Most of the blue light is scattered away. White minus blue is yellowish or reddish. that s why the sunset is red. Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 18

19 ConcepTest 33.5(post) Polarization If unpolarized light is incident from the left, at which of the points will there be some light? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) none of them e) all of them Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 19

20 ConcepTest 33.6(post) Polarization Suppose the axis of the 2 nd polarizer is oriented 45 0 relative to the 1 st polarizer, and the intensity of the incident light is I 0. How much light emerges from the 3 rd polarizer? a) 0 b) I 0 /1.4 c) I 0 /2 d) I 0 /4 e) I 0 /8 Phys 2435: Chap. 33, Pg 20

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