# Lighting and Shading Computer Graphics I Lecture 7. Light Sources Phong Illumination Model Normal Vectors [Angel, Ch

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1 Computer Graphics I Lecture 7 Lighting and Shading February 12, 2002 Frank Pfenning Carnegie Mellon University Light Sources Phong Illumination Model Normal Vectors [Angel, Ch ]

2 Remarks About Assignment 2 Remember that object transformations are applied in the reverse order in which they appear in the code! Remember that transformation matrices are multiplied on the right and executed from right to left: (R S T)v = R (S (T v))! Look at the model solution (when it is out) and make sure you understand it before the midterm 02/12/ Graphics I 2

3 Outline Light Sources Phong Illumination Model Normal Vectors 02/12/ Graphics I 3

4 Lighting and Shading Approximate physical reality Ray tracing: Follow light rays through a scene Accurate, but expensive (off-line) Radiosity: Calculate surface inter-reflection approximately Accurate, especially interiors, but expensive (off-line) Phong Illumination model (this lecture): Approximate only interaction light, surface, viewer Relatively fast (on-line), supported in OpenGL 02/12/ Graphics I 4

5 Radiosity Example Restaurant Interior. Guillermo Leal, Evolucion Visual 02/12/ Graphics I 5

6 Raytracing Example Martin Moeck, Siemens Lighting 02/12/ Graphics I 6

7 Light Sources and Material Properties Appearance depends on Light sources, their locations and properties Material (surface) properties Viewer position Ray tracing: from viewer into scene Radiosity: between surface patches Phong Model: at material, from light to viewer 02/12/ Graphics I 7

8 Types of Light Sources Ambient light: no identifiable source or direction Point source: given only by point Distant light: given only by direction Spotlight: from source in direction Cut-off angle defines a cone of light Attenuation function (brighter in center) Light source described by a luminance Each color is described separately I = [I r I g I b ] T (I for intensity) Sometimes calculate generically (applies to r, g, b) 02/12/ Graphics I 8

9 Ambient Light Global ambient light Independent of light source Lights entire scene Local ambient light Contributed by additional light sources Can be different for each light and primary color Computationally inexpensive 02/12/ Graphics I 9

10 Point Source Given by a point p 0 Light emitted equally in all directions Intensity decreases with square of distance 02/12/ Graphics I 10

11 Limitations of Point Sources Shading and shadows inaccurate Example: penumbra (partial soft shadow) Similar problems with highlights Compensate with attenuation Softens lighting Better with ray tracing Better with radiosity d = distance p p 0 a, b, c constants 02/12/ Graphics I 11

12 Distant Light Source Given by a vector v Simplifies some calculations In OpenGL: Point source [x y z 1] T Distant source [x y z 0] T 02/12/ Graphics I 12

13 Spotlight Most complex light source in OpenGL Light still emanates from point Cut-off by cone determined by angle θ 02/12/ Graphics I 13

14 Spotlight Attenuation Spotlight is brightest along l s Vector v with angle φ from p to point on surface Intensity determined by cos φ Corresponds to projection of v onto I s Spotlight exponent e determines rate for e = 1 Diagram correction [u = θ, f = φ] for e > 1 curve narrows 02/12/ Graphics I 14

15 Outline Light Sources Phong Illumination Model Normal Vectors 02/12/ Graphics I 15

16 Phong Illumination Model Calculate color for arbitrary point on surface Compromise between realism and efficiency Local computation (no visibility calculations) Basic inputs are material properties and l, n, v: l = vector to light source n = surface normal v = vector to viewer r = reflection of l at p (determined by l and n) 02/12/ Graphics I 16

17 Basic Calculation Calculate each primary color separately Start with global ambient light Add reflections from each light source Clamp to [0, 1] Reflection decomposed into Ambient reflection Diffuse reflection Specular reflection Based on ambient, diffuse, and specular lighting and material properties 02/12/ Graphics I 17

18 Ambient Reflection Intensity of ambient light uniform at every point Ambient reflection coefficient k a, 0 k a 1 May be different for every surface and r,g,b Determines reflected fraction of ambient light L a = ambient component of light source Ambient intensity I a = k a L a Note: L a is not a physically meaningful quantity 02/12/ Graphics I 18

19 Diffuse Reflection Diffuse reflector scatters light Assume equally all direction Called Lambertian surface Diffuse reflection coefficient k d, 0 k d 1 Angle of incoming light still critical 02/12/ Graphics I 19

20 Lambert s Law Intensity depends on angle of incoming light Recall l = unit vector from light n = unit surface normal θ = angle to normal cos θ = l n I d = k n (l n) L d With attenuation: q = distance to light source, L d = diffuse component of light 02/12/ Graphics I 20

21 Specular Reflection Specular reflection coefficient k s, 0 k s 1 Shiny surfaces have high specular coefficient Used to model specular highlights Do not get mirror effect (need other techniques) specular reflection specular highlights 02/12/ Graphics I 21

22 Shininess Coefficient L s is specular component of light r is vector of perfect reflection of l about n v is vector to viewer φ is angle between v and r I s = k s L s cos α φ α is shininess coefficient Compute cos φ = r v Requires r = v = 1 Multiply distance term Higher α is narrower 02/12/ Graphics I 22

23 Summary of Phong Model Light components for each color: Ambient (L_a), diffuse (L_d), specular (L_s) Material coefficients for each color: Ambient (k_a), diffuse (k_d), specular (k_s) Distance q for surface point from light source l = vector from light n = surface normal r = l reflected about n v = vector to viewer 02/12/ Graphics I 23

24 Outline Light Sources Phong Illumination Model Normal Vectors 02/12/ Graphics I 24

25 Normal Vectors Summarize Phong Surface normal n is critical Calculate l n Calculate r and then r v Must calculate and specify the normal vector Even in OpenGL! Two examples: plane and sphere 02/12/ Graphics I 25

26 Normals of a Plane, Method I Method I: given by ax + by + cz + d = 0 Let p 0 be a known point on the plane Let p be an arbitrary point on the plane Recall: u v = 0 iff u orthogonal v n (p p 0 ) = n p n p 0 = 0 Consequently n 0 = [a b c 0] T Normalize to n = n 0 / n 0 02/12/ Graphics I 26

27 Normals of a Plane, Method II Method II: plane given by p 0, p 1, p 2 Points may not be collinear Recall: u v orthogonal to u and v n 0 = (p 1 p 0 ) (p 2 p 0 ) Order of cross produce determines orientation Normalize to n = n 0 / n 0 02/12/ Graphics I 27

28 Normals of Sphere Implicit Equation f(x, y, z) = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 1 = 0 Vector form: f(p) = p p 1 = 0 Normal given by gradient vector Normalize n 0 / n 0 = 2p/2 = p 02/12/ Graphics I 28

29 Angle of Reflection Perfect reflection: angle of incident equals angle of reflection Also: l, n, and r lie in the same plane Assume l = n = 1, guarantee r = 1 Solution: α = -1 and β = 2 (l n) Perhaps easier geometrically 02/12/ Graphics I 29

30 Summary: Normal Vectors Critical for Phong model (diffuse and specular) Must calculate accurately (even in OpenGL) Pitfalls Not unit length How to set at surface boundary? Omitted Refraction of transmitted light (Snell s law) Halfway vector (yet another optimization) 02/12/ Graphics I 30

31 Summary Light Sources Phong Illumination Model Normal Vectors 02/12/ Graphics I 31

32 Preview Polygonal shading Lighting and shading in OpenGL [Demo] Moving and stationary light sources 02/12/ Graphics I 32

33 Announcements Assignment 2 back Thursday Check out model solution (before midterm) Assignment 3 due a week from Thursday 02/12/ Graphics I 33

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