# Three-Dimensional Graphics V. Guoying Zhao 1 / 55

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1 Computer Graphics Three-Dimensional Graphics V Guoying Zhao 1 / 55

2 Shading Guoying Zhao 2 / 55

3 Objectives Learn to shade objects so their images appear three-dimensional Introduce the types of light-material interactions Build a simple reflection model---the Phong model--- that can be used with real time graphics hardware Introduce modified Phong model Consider computation of required vectors Guoying Zhao 3 / 55

4 Why we need shading Suppose we build a model of a sphere using many polygons and color it with glcolor. We get something like But we want Guoying Zhao 4 / 55

5 Shading Why does the image of a real sphere look like Light-material interactions cause each point to have a different color or shade Need to consider Light sources Material properties Location of viewer Surface orientation Guoying Zhao 5 / 55

6 Light strikes A Scattering Some scattered Some absorbed b Some of scattered light strikes B Some scattered Some absorbed Some of this scattered light strikes A, and so on Guoying Zhao 6 / 55

7 Rendering Equation The infinite scattering and absorption of light can be described by the rendering equation Cannot be solved in general Ray tracing, radiosity Rendering equation is global l and includes Shadows Multiple scattering from object to object Guoying Zhao 7 / 55

8 Global Effects shadow translucent surface multiple reflection Guoying Zhao 8 / 55

9 Local vs Global Rendering Correct shading requires a global calculation involving all objects and light sources Incompatible with pipeline model which shades each polygon independently (local rendering) However, in computer graphics, especially real time graphics, we are happy if things look right Exist many techniques for approximating global effects Guoying Zhao 9 / 55

10 Light-Material Interaction Light that t strikes an object is partially absorbed b and partially scattered (reflected) The amount reflected determines the color and brightness of the object A surface appears red under white light because the red component of the light is reflected and the rest is absorbed The reflected light is scattered in a manner that depends on the smoothness and orientation of the surface Guoying Zhao 10 / 55

11 Light Sources General light sources are difficult to work with because we must integrate light coming from all points on the source Guoying Zhao 11 / 55

12 Point source Simple Light Sources Model with position and color Distant source = infinite distance away (parallel) Spotlight Restrict light from ideal point source Ambient light Same amount of light everywhere in scene Can model contribution of many sources and reflecting surfaces Guoying Zhao 12 / 55

13 Surface Types The smoother a surface, the more reflected light is concentrated in the direction a perfect mirror would reflect the light A very rough surface scatters light in all directions smooth surface rough surface Guoying Zhao 13 / 55

14 Phong Model A simple model that can be computed rapidly Has three components Diffuse Specular Ambient Uses four vectors To source: l To viewer: v Normal: n Perfect reflector: r Guoying Zhao 14 / 55

15 Ideal Reflector Normal is determined by local orientation Angle of incidence = angle of reflection The three vectors must be coplanar r =2(l n ) n - l Guoying Zhao 15 / 55

16 Lambertian Surface Perfectly diffuse reflector Light scattered equally in all directions Amount of light reflected is proportional to the vertical component of incoming light reflected light ~cos θ i cosθ i = l n if vectors normalized There are also three coefficients, k r, k b, k g that show how much of each color component is reflected Guoying Zhao 16 / 55

17 Specular Surfaces Most surfaces are neither ideal diffusers nor perfectly specular (ideal reflectors) Smooth surfaces show specular highlights due to incoming light being reflected in directions concentrated close to the direction of a perfect reflection specular highlight Guoying Zhao 17 / 55

18 Modeling Specular Reflections Phong proposed using a term that dropped off as the angle between the viewer and the ideal reflection increased I r ~ k s I cos α φ reflected ec ed shininess coef intensity incoming intensity absorption coef φ Guoying Zhao 18 / 55

19 The Shininess Coefficient Values of α between 100 and 200 correspond to metals Values between 5 and 10 give surface that look like plastic cos α φ -90 φ 90 Guoying Zhao 19 / 55

20 Ambient Light Ambient light is the result of multiple interactions between (large) light sources and the objects in the environment Amount and color depend on both the color of the light(s) and the material properties of the object Add k a I a to diffuse and specular terms reflection coef intensity it of ambient light Guoying Zhao 20 / 55

21 Distance Terms The light from a point source that reaches a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them We can add a factor of the form 1/(a + bd +cd 2 ) to the diffuse and specular terms Guoying Zhao 21 / 55

22 Light Sources In the Phong Model, we add the results from each light source Each light source has separate diffuse, specular, and ambient terms to allow for maximum flexibility even though this form does not have a physical justification Separate red, green and blue components Hence, 9 coefficients for each point source I dr, I dg, I db, I sr, I sg, I sb, I ar, I ag, I ab Guoying Zhao 22 / 55

23 Material Properties Material properties match light source properties Nine absorbtion coefficients k dr, k dg,, k db,, k sr,, k sg,, k sb,, k ar,, k ag,, k ab Shininess coefficient α Guoying Zhao 23 / 55

24 Adding up the Components For each light source and each color component, the Phong model can be written (without the distance terms) as I =k d I d l n + k s I s (v r ) α +k a I a For each color component we add contributions from all sources Guoying Zhao 24 / 55

25 Modified Phong Model The specular term in the Phong model is problematic because it requires the calculation of a new reflection vector and view vector for each vertex Blinn suggested an approximation using the halfway vector that is more efficient Guoying Zhao 25 / 55

26 The Halfway Vector h is normalized vector halfway between l and v h = ( l + v )/ l + v Guoying Zhao 26 / 55

27 Using the halfway angle Replace (v r ) α by (n h ) β β is chosen to match shineness Note that halway angle is half of angle between r and v if vectors are coplanar Resulting model is known as the modified Phong or Blinn-Phong model Specified in OpenGL standard Guoying Zhao 27 / 55

28 Example Only differences in these teapots are the parameters in the modified Phong model Guoying Zhao 28 / 55

29 Computation ti of Vectors l and v are specified by the application Can compute r from l and n Problem is determining n For simple surfaces n can be determined but how we determine n differs depending on underlying representation of surface OpenGL leaves determination of normal to application Exception for GLU quadrics and Bezier surfaces (Chapter 12) Guoying Zhao 29 / 55

30 Plane Normals Equation of plane: ax+by+cz+d = 0 We know that plane is determined by three points p 0, p 2, p 3 or normal n and p 0 Normal can be obtained by n =(p 2 -p 0 ) (p 1 -p 0 ) Guoying Zhao 30 / 55

31 Normal to Sphere Implicit function f(x,y,z)=0 Normal given by gradient Sphere f(p)=p p-1 in the vector form n = [ f/ x, f/ y, f/ z] ] T =p Guoying Zhao 31 / 55

32 Parametric Form For sphere x=x(u,v)=cos u sin v y=y(u,v)=cos u cos v z= z(u,v)=sin u Tangent plane determined by vectors p/ u = [ x/ u, y/ u, z/ u] T p/ v = [ x/ v, y/ v, z/ v] T Normal given by cross product n = p/ u p/ v Guoying Zhao 32 / 55

33 General Case We can compute parametric normals for other simple cases Quadrics Parameteric polynomial surfaces Bezier surface patches Guoying Zhao 33 / 55

34 Shading in OpenGL Guoying Zhao 34 / 55

35 Objectives Introduce the OpenGL shading functions Discuss polygonal shading Flat Smooth Gouraud Guoying Zhao 35 / 55

36 Steps in OpenGL shading 1. Enable shading and select model 2. Specify normals 3. Specify material properties 4. Specify lights Guoying Zhao 36 / 55

37 Normals In OpenGL the normal vector is part of the state Set by glnormal*() glnormal3f(x, y, z); glnormal3fv(p); Usually we want to set the normal to have unit length so cosine calculations are correct Length can be affected by transformations Note that scaling does not preserved length glenable(gl_normalize) allows for autonormalization at a performance penalty Guoying Zhao 37 / 55

38 Normal for Triangle plane n (p - p 0 ) = 0 n p 2 n = (p 2 - p 0 ) (p 1 - p 0 ) p p 1 normalize n n/ n p 0 Note that tright-hand h rule determines outward dface Guoying Zhao 38 / 55

39 Enabling Shading Shading calculations are enabled by glenable(gl_lighting) Once lighting is enabled, glcolor() ignored Must enable each light source individually glenable(gl_lighti) i=0,1.. Can choose light model parameters gllightmodeli(parameter, GL_TRUE) GL_LIGHT_MODEL_LOCAL_VIEWER do not use simplifying distant viewer assumption in calculation GL_LIGHT_MODEL_TWO_SIDED LIGHT TWO shades both sides of polygons independently Guoying Zhao 39 / 55

40 Defining a Point Light Source For each light source, we can set an RGBA for the diffuse, specular, and ambient components, and for the position GL float diffuse0[]={1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0}; GL float ambient0[]={1 {1.0, 0.0, 0 0.0, 0 1.0}; GL float specular0[]={1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0}; Glfloat light0_pos[]={1.0, 2.0, 3,0, 1.0}; glenable(gl_lighting); glenable(gl_light0); gllightv(gl_light0, LIGHT0 GL_POSITION, light0_pos); gllightv(gl_light0, GL_AMBIENT, ambient0); gllightv(gl_light0, GL_DIFFUSE, diffuse0); gllightv(gl_light0, GL_SPECULAR, specular0); Guoying Zhao 40 / 55

41 Distance and Direction The source colors are specified in RGBA The position is given in homogeneous coordinates If w =1.0, we are specifying a finite location If w =0.0, we are specifying a parallel source with the given direction vector The coefficients in the distance terms are by default a=1.0 10( (constant tt terms), b=c=0.0 00(linear and quadratic terms). Change by a= 0.80; gllightf(gl_light0, GLCONSTANT_ATTENUATION, a); Guoying Zhao 41 / 55

42 Spotlights Use gllightv to set Direction GL_SPOT_DIRECTION Cutoff GL_SPOT_CUTOFF Attenuation GL_SPOT_EXPONENT Proportional to cos α φ θ φ θ Guoying Zhao 42 / 55

43 Global Ambient Light Ambient light depends on color of light sources A red light in a white room will cause a red ambient term that disappears when the light is turned off OpenGL also allows a global ambient term that is often helpful for testing gllightmodelfv(gl_light_model_ambient, LIGHT MODEL global_ambient) Guoying Zhao 43 / 55

44 Moving Light Sources Light sources are geometric objects whose positions or directions are affected by the modelview matrix Depending on where we place the position (direction) setting function, we can Move the light source(s) with the object(s) Fix the object(s) and move the light source(s) Fix the light source(s) and move the object(s) Move the light source(s) and object(s) independently Guoying Zhao 44 / 55

45 Material Properties Material properties are also part of the OpenGL state and match the terms in the modified Phong model Set by glmaterialv() GLfloat ambient[] = {0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0}; GLfloat diffuse[] = {1.0, 0.8, 0.0, 1.0}; GLfloat specular[] = {1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0}; GLfloat shine = glmaterialf(gl_front, GL_AMBIENT, ambient); glmaterialf(gl a _ FRONT, GL_ DIFFUSE, diffuse); glmaterialf(gl_front, GL_SPECULAR, specular); glmaterialf(gl_front, GL_SHININESS, shine); Guoying Zhao 45 / 55

46 Front and Back Faces The default is shade only front faces which works correctly for convex objects If we set two sided lighting, OpenGL will shade both sides of a surface Each side can have its own properties p which are set by using GL_FRONT, GL_BACK, or GL_FRONT_AND_BACK in glmaterialf back faces not visible Guoying Zhao 46 / 55 back faces visible

47 Emissive Term We can simulate a light source in OpenGL by giving a material an emissive component This component is unaffected by any sources or transformations GLfloat emission[] = 0.0, 0.3, 0.3, 1.0); glmaterialf(gl_front, GL_EMISSION, emission); Guoying Zhao 47 / 55

48 Transparency Material properties are specified as RGBA values The A value can be used to make the surface translucent The default is that all surfaces are opaque regardless of A Later we will enable blending and use this feature Guoying Zhao 48 / 55

49 Efficiency Because material properties are part of the state, if we change materials for many surfaces, we can affect performance We can make the code cleaner by defining a material structure and setting all materials during initialization typedef struct materialstruct { GLfloat ambient[4]; GLfloat diffuse[4]; GLfloat specular[4]; GLfloat shineness; } MaterialStruct; We can then select a material by a pointer Guoying Zhao 49 / 55

50 Polygonal Shading Shading calculations are done for each vertex Vertex colors become vertex shades By default, vertex shades are interpolated across the polygon glshademodel(gl_smooth); d l(gl SMOOTH) If we use glshademodel(gl_flat); the color at the first vertex will determine the shade of the whole polygon Guoying Zhao 50 / 55

51 Polygon Normals Polygons have a single normal Shades at the vertices as computed by the Phong model can be almost same Identical for a distant viewer (default) or if there is no specular component Consider model of sphere Want different normals at each vertex even though this concept is not quite correct mathematically Guoying Zhao 51 / 55

52 Smooth Shading We can set a new normal at each vertex Easy for sphere model If centered at origin n = p Now smooth shading works Note silhouette edge Guoying Zhao 52 / 55

53 Mesh Shading The previous example is not general because we knew the normal at each vertex analytically For polygonal models, Gouraud proposed we use the average of the normals around a mesh vertex n = (n 1 +n 2 +n 3 +n 4 )/ n 1 +n 2 +n 3 +n 4 Guoying Zhao 53 / 55

54 Gouraud Shading Gouraud and Phong Shading Find average normal at each vertex (vertex normals) Apply modified Phong model at each vertex Interpolate vertex shades across each polygon Phong shading Find vertex normals Interpolate vertex normals across edges Interpolate edge normals across polygon Apply modified Phong model at each fragment Guoying Zhao 54 / 55

55 Comparison If the polygon mesh approximates surfaces with a high curvatures, Phong shading may look smooth while Gouraud shading may show edges Phong shading requires much more work than Gouraud shading Until recently not available in real time systems Now can be done using fragment shaders Both need data structures to represent meshes so we can obtain vertex normals Guoying Zhao 55 / 55

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