# Objectives. Continue discussion of shading Introduce modified Phong model Consider computation of required vectors

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1 Objectives Continue discussion of shading Introduce modified Phong model Consider computation of required vectors 1

2 Lambertian Surface Perfectly diffuse reflector Light scattered equally in all directions Amount of light reflected is proportional to the vertical component of incoming light reflected light ~cos i cos i = l n if vectors normalized There are also three coefficients, k r, k b, k g that show how much of each color component is reflected 2

3 Ambient Light Ambient light is the result of multiple interactions between (large) light sources and the objects in the environment Amount and color depend on both the color of the light(s) and the material properties of the object Add k a L a to diffuse and specular terms reflection coef intensity of ambient light 3

4 Distance Terms The light from a point source that reaches a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them We can add a factor of the form 1/(ad + bd +cd 2 ) to the diffuse and specular terms The constant and linear terms soften the effect of the point source 4

5 Light Sources In the Phong Model, we add the results from each light source Each light source has separate diffuse, specular, and ambient terms to allow for maximum flexibility even though this form does not have a physical justification Separate red, green and blue components 5

6 Material Properties Hence, 9 coefficients for each point source I dr, I dg, I db, I sr, I sg, I sb, I ar, I ag, I ab Material properties match light source properties Nine absorbtion coefficients k dr, k dg, k db, k sr, k sg, k sb, k ar, k ag, k ab Shininess coefficient 6

7 Adding up the Components For each light source and each color component, the Phong model can be written (without the distance terms) as I =k d I d l n + k s I s (v r ) + k a I a For each color component we add contributions from all sources 7

8 Modified Phong Model The specular term in the Phong model is problematic because it requires the calculation of a new reflection vector and view vector for each vertex Blinn suggested an approximation using the halfway vector that is more efficient 8

9 The Halfway Vector h is normalized vector halfway between l and v h = ( l + v )/ l + v 9

10 Using the halfway angle Replace (v r ) by (n h ) is chosen to match shineness Note that halfway angle is half of angle between r and v if vectors are coplanar Resulting model is known as the modified Phong or Blinn lighting model Specified in OpenGL standard 10

11 Example Only differences in these teapots are the parameters in the modified Phong model 11

12 Computation of Vectors l and v are specified by the application Can compute r from l and n Problem is determining n For simple surfaces n is can be determined but how we determine n differs depending on underlying representation of surface OpenGL leaves determination of normal to application Exception for GLU quadrics and Bezier surfaces (Chapter 11) 12

13 Plane Normals Equation of plane: ax+by+cz+d = 0 From Chapter 4 we know that plane is determined by three points p 0, p 2, p 3 or normal n and p 0 Normal can be obtained by n = (p 2 -p 0 ) (p 1 -p 0 ) 13

14 Normal to Sphere Implicit function f(x,y.z)=0 Normal given by gradient Sphere f(p)=p p-1 n = [ f/ x, f/ y, f/ z] T =p 14

15 Parametric Form For sphere x=x(u,v)=cos u sin v y=y(u,v)=cos u cos v z= z(u,v)=sin u Tangent plane determined by vectors p/ u = [ x/ u, y/ u, z/ u] p/ v = [ x/ v, y/ v, z/ v] Normal given by cross product n = p/ u p/ v 15

16 General Case We can compute parametric normals for other simple cases Quadrics Parameteric polynomial surfaces Bezier surface patches (Chapter 11) 16

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