Objectives. Introduce the OpenGL shading Methods 1) Light and material functions on MV.js 2) per vertex vs per fragment shading 3) Where to carry out

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1 Objectives Introduce the OpenGL shading Methods 1) Light and material functions on MV.js 2) per vertex vs per fragment shading 3) Where to carry out 1

2 Steps in OpenGL shading Enable shading and select model Specify normals Specify material properties Specify lights State-based shading function have been dropped:glnormal, glmaterial, gllight. Compute in application or in shaders 2

3 Normalization Cosine terms in lighting calculations can be computed using dot product Unit length vectors simplify calculation Usually we want to set the magnitudes to have unit length but Length can be affected by transformations Note that scaling does not preserved length GLSL has a normalization function 3

4 Normal for Triangle plane n (p - p 0 ) = 0 n p 2 n = (p 2 - p 0 ) (p 1 - p 0 ) p p 1 normalize n n/ n p 0 Note that right-hand rule determines outward face 4

5 Specifying a Point Light Source For each light source, we can set an RGBA for the diffuse, specular, and ambient components, and for the position var diffuse0 = vec4(1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0); var ambient0 = vec4(1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0); var specular0 = vec4(1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0); var light0_pos = vec4(1.0, 2.0, 3,0, 1.0) 5

6 Distance and Direction The source colors are specified in RGBA The position is given in homogeneous coordinates If w =1.0, we are specifying a finite location If w =0.0, we are specifying a parallel source with the given direction vector The coefficients in distance terms are usually quadratic (1/(a+b*d+c*d*d)) where d is the distance from the point being rendered to the light source 6

7 Spotlights Derive from point source Direction Cutoff Attenuation Proportional to cos 7

8 Moving Light Sources Light sources are geometric objects whose positions or directions are affected by the model-view matrix Depending on where we place the position (direction) setting function, we can Move the light source(s) with the object(s) Fix the object(s) and move the light source(s) Fix the light source(s) and move the object(s) Move the light source(s) and object(s) independently 8

9 Material Properties var materialambient = vec4( 1.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0 ); var materialdiffuse = vec4( 1.0, 0.8, 0.0, 1.0); var materialspecular = vec4( 1.0, 0.8, 0.0, 1.0 ); var materialshininess = 100.0; 9

10 Using MV.js for Products var ambientproduct = mult(lightambient, materialambient); var diffuseproduct = mult(lightdiffuse, materialdiffuse); var specularproduct = mult(lightspecular, materialspecular); gl.uniform4fv(gl.getuniformlocation(program, "ambientproduct"), flatten(ambientproduct)); gl.uniform4fv(gl.getuniformlocation(program, "diffuseproduct"), flatten(diffuseproduct) ); gl.uniform4fv(gl.getuniformlocation(program, "specularproduct"), flatten(specularproduct) ); gl.uniform4fv(gl.getuniformlocation(program, "lightposition"), flatten(lightposition) ); gl.uniform1f(gl.getuniformlocation(program, "shininess"),materialshininess); 10

11 Front and Back Faces Every face has a front and back For many objects, we never see the back face so we don t care how or if it s rendered If it matters, we can handle in shader back faces not visible back faces visible 11

12 Emissive Term We can simulate a light source in OpenGL by giving a material an emissive component This color is unaffected by any sources or transformations 12

13 Transparency Material properties are specified as RGBA values The A value can be used to make the surface translucent The default is that all surfaces are opaque regardless of A Later we will enable blending and use this feature However with the HTML5 canvas, A<1 will mute colors 13

14 Efficiency Because material properties are part of the state, if we change materials for many surfaces, we can affect performance We can make the code cleaner by defining a material structure and setting all materials during initialization typedef struct materialstruct { GLfloat ambient[4]; GLfloat diffuse[4]; GLfloat specular[4]; GLfloat shineness; } MaterialStruct; We can then select a material by a pointer 14

15 Polygonal Shading Shading calculations are done for each vertex Vertex colors become vertex shades By default, vertex colors are interpolated across the polygon glshademodel(gl_smooth); If we use glshademodel(gl_flat); the color at the first vertex will determine the color of the whole polygon 15

16 Polygon Normals Polygons have a single normal Consider model of sphere Want different normals at each vertex even though this concept is not quite correct mathematically 16

17 Smooth Shading We can set a new normal at each vertex Easy for sphere model If centered at origin n = p Now smooth shading works Note silhouette edge 17

18 Mesh Shading The previous example is not general because we knew the normal at each vertex analytically For polygonal models, Gouraud proposed we use the average of normals around a mesh vertex n n 1 n1 n n 2 2 n3 n 3 n 4 n 4 18

19 Gouraud and Phong Shading Gouraud Shading Find average normal at each vertex (vertex normals) Apply Phong model at each vertex Interpolate vertex shades across each polygon Phong shading Find vertex normals Interpolate vertex normals across edges Find shades along edges Interpolate edge shades across polygons 19

20 Comparison If the polygon mesh approximates surfaces with a high curvatures, Phong shading may look smooth while Gouraud shading may show edges Phong shading requires much more work than Gouraud shading Usually not available in real time systems Both need data structures to represent meshes so we can obtain vertex normals Gouraud shading is all standard opengl implements. To get Phong shading must use fragment shader. 20

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