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1 CS 543: Computer Graphics Illumination & Shading I Robert W. Lindeman Associate Professor Interactive Media & Game Development Department of Computer Science Worcester Polytechnic Institute (with lots of help from Prof. Emmanuel Agu :-)

2 Illumination and Shading o Problem: Model light/surface point interactions to determine final color and brightness o Apply the lighting model at a set of points across the entire surface lighting Shading R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 2

3 Illumination Model o The governing principles for computing the illumination o An illumination model usually considers n Light attributes (intensity, color, position, direction, shape) n Object surface attributes (color, reflectivity, transparency, etc.) n Interaction among lights and objects R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 3

4 Basic Light Sources o Light intensity can be independent or dependent of the distance between object and the light source Point light Spot light Directional light Area light R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 4

5 Local Illumination o Only consider the light, the observer position, and the object material properties o Almost all renderers do at least this θ R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 5

6 Global Illumination o Take into account the interaction of light from all the surfaces in the scene o Example: n Ray Tracing n Model light rays bouncing around object 4 object 3 object 2 object 1 R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 6

7 Global Illumination (cont.) o Example: n Radiosity o Model energy moving from emitters (e.g., lights) into the scene o View independent R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 7

8 Simple Local Illumination o The model used by OpenGL o Reduce the complex workings of light to three components n Ambient n Diffuse n Specular o Final illumination at a point (vertex) = ambient + diffuse + specular o Materials reflect each component differently n Use different material reflection coefficients o K a, K d, K s R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 8

9 Ambient Light Contribution o Ambient light = background light o Light that is scattered by the environment n It's just there o Frequently assumed to be constant o Very simple approximation of global illumination o No direction: independent of light position, object orientation, observer s position/orientation object 3 object 4 object 2 constant object 1 Ambient = I x K a R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 9

10 Diffuse Light Contribution o Diffuse light: The illumination that a surface receives from a light source that reflects equally in all directions n Eye point does not matter R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 10

11 Diffuse Light Calculation o Need to decide how much light the object point receives from the light source n Based on Lambert s Law Receive more light Receive less light R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 11

12 Diffuse Light Calculation (cont.) o Lambert s law: the radiant energy D that a small surface patch receives from a light source is: Diffuse = K d x I x cos(θ) K d : diffuse reflection coefficient I: light intensity θ: angle between the light vector and the surface normal light vector (vector from object to light) θ N : surface normal R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 12

13 Diffuse Light Examples I = 1.0 K d = R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 13

14 Specular Light Contribution o The bright spot on the object o The result of total reflection of the incident light in a concentrate region Sees no specular Sees lots of specular R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 14

15 Specular Light Calculation o How much reflection you can see depends on where you are n But for non-perfect surface you will still see specular highlight when you move a little bit away from the ideal reflection direction Φ is deviation of view angle from mirror direction n When φ is small, you see more specular highlight R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 15

16 Specular Light Calculation (cont.) o Phong lighting model n Not Phong shading model o The effect of 'f' in the Phong model Specular = K s x I x cos f (φ) f = 10 f = 90 f = 30 f = 270 R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 16

17 Specular Light Examples K s = 0.25 K s = 0.5 K s = 0.75 f = 3 f = 6 f = 9 f = 25 f = 200 R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 17

18 Putting It All Together o Illumination from a light Illum = ambient + diffuse + specular = K a x I + K d x I x cos(θ) + K s x I x cos f (φ) o If there are N lights Total illumination for a point P = Σ (Illum) o Some more terms to be added n Self emission n Global ambient n Light distance attenuation and spot light effect R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 18

19 Putting It All Together (cont.) o Illum = ambient + diffuse + specular R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 19

20 Ambient Lighting Example R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 20

21 Diffuse Lighting Example R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 21

22 Specular Lighting Example R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 22

23 Adding Color o Sometimes light or surfaces are colored o Treat R, G and B components separately n i.e., can specify different RGB values for either light or material o Illumination equation goes from Illum = ambient + diffuse + specular To: = K a x I + K d x I x cos(θ) + K s x I x cos f (φ) Illum r = K ar x I r + K dr x I r x cos(θ) + K sr x I r x cos f (φ) Illum g = K ag x I g + K dg x I g x cos(θ) + K sg x I g x cos f (φ) Illum b = K ab x I b + K db x I b x cos(θ) + K sb x I b x cos f (φ) R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 23

24 Adding Color (cont.) Material Ambient Diffuse Specular Exponent f K ar, K ag, K ab K dr, K dg, K db K sr, K sg, K sb Black plastic Brass Polished Silver R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 24

25 Lighting Steps o Adopt Phong lighting model n Ambient + Specular + Diffuse lights n Lighting is computed at vertices o Interpolate across surface (Gouraud/smooth shading) o Setting up lighting n Light properties n Surface material properties n Provide correct surface normals n Set light model properties R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 25

26 Light Properties o Properties n Colors / Position and type / attenuation gllightfv( light, property, value ) (1) Constant: specify which light you want to set the property for e.g., GL_LIGHT0, GL_LIGHT1, GL_LIGHT2... you can create multiple lights (OpenGL allows at least 8 lights) (2) Constant: specify which light property you want to set e.g., GL_AMBIENT, GL_DIFFUSE, GL_SPECULAR, GL_POSITION (check the red book, or the Web, for more) (3) The value you want to set to the property R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 26

27 Property Example o Define colors and position a light Var light_ambient[] = { 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 }; Var light_diffuse[] = { 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 }; Var light_specular[] = { 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 }; Var light_position[] = { 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0 }; Pass along data to shaders see book code Colors Position What if I set Position to (0, 0, 1, 0)? R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 27

28 Types of Lights o WebGL doesn t support lights, you provide your own (see book code): n Local light (point light) n Infinite light (directional light) o WebGL determines the light type by: n w = 0: Infinite light source n w!= 0:Point light o Position = (x/w, y/w, z/w) vec3 light = lightposition.xyz; //shader: already in world space R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 28

29 Controlling Light Position o Modelview matrix affects a light s position o Two options n Option a: o Treat light like vertex o Perform a translate, rotate on light position o Call LookAt o Light moves independently of camera n Option b: o Load identity matrix in modelview matrix o Call LookAt o Light appears at the eye (like a miner s lamp) R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 29

30 Material Example o Define ambient/diffuse/specular reflection and shininess var mat_amb_diff[] = { 1.0, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 }; Refl. var mat_specular[] = { 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 }; coeff. var shininess[] = { 5.0 }; Range: dull 0 very shiny 128 Pass to the shader (see book code for details) R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 30

31 Surface Normals o Correct normals are essential for correct lighting o Associate a normal with each vertex normalsarray.push( u, v, n ); pointsarray.push( x, y, z );... o All normals must be specified in unit length n More on why in the next slide set! R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 31

32 Colored Wireframe R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 32

33 Colored Hidden-Line Removal R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 33

34 Ambient Term Only R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 34

35 Flat Shading R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 35

36 Diffuse Shading + Interp. Normals R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 36

37 Gouraud Shading R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 37

38 Ambient + Diffuse + Specular R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 38

39 Ambient + Diffuse + Specular + Interpolated Normals R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 39

40 Radiosity R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 40

41 Texture Mapping R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 41

42 Texture Mapping + Ray Tracing R.W. Lindeman - WPI Dept. of Computer Science 42

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