Binary Addition. Add the binary numbers and and show the equivalent decimal addition.


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1 Binary Addition The rules for binary addition are = 0 Sum = 0, carry = = 0 Sum = 1, carry = = 0 Sum = 1, carry = = 10 Sum = 0, carry = 1 When an input carry = 1 due to a previous result, the rules are = 01 Sum = 1, carry = = 10 Sum = 0, carry = = 10 Sum = 0, carry = = 11 Sum = 1, carry = 1 1
2 Binary Addition Add the binary numbers and and show the equivalent decimal addition = 28 2
3 Binary Subtraction The rules for binary subtraction are 00 = = = = 1 with a borrow of 1 Subtract the binary number from and show the equivalent decimal subtraction / / / = 14 3
4 1 s Complement The 1 s complement of a binary number is just the inverse of the digits. To form the 1 s complement, change all 0 s to 1 s and all 1 s to 0 s. For example, the 1 s complement of is In digital circuits, the 1 s complement is formed by using inverters:
5 2 s Complement The 2 s complement of a binary number is found by adding 1 to the LSB of the 1 s complement. Recall that the 1 s complement of is (1 s complement) To form the 2 s complement, add 1: (2 s complement) Input bits Adder Output bits (sum) Carry in (add 1) 5
6 Signed Binary Numbers There are several ways to represent signed binary numbers. In all cases, the MSB in a signed number is the sign bit, that tells you if the number is positive or negative. Computers use a modified 2 s complement for signed numbers. Positive numbers are stored in true form (with a 0 for the sign bit) and negative numbers are stored in complement form (with a 1 for the sign bit). For example, the positive number 58 is written using 8bits as (true form). Sign bit Magnitude bits 6
7 Signed Binary Numbers Negative numbers are written as the 2 s complement of the corresponding positive number. The negative number 58 is written as: 58 = (complement form) Sign bit Magnitude bits An easy way to read a signed number that uses this notation is to assign the sign bit a column weight of 128 (for an 8bit number). Then add the column weights for the 1 s. Assuming that the sign bit = 128, show that = 58 as a 2 s complement signed number: Column weights: = 58 7
8 Arithmetic Operations with Signed Numbers Using the signed number notation with negative numbers in 2 s complement form simplifies addition and subtraction of signed numbers. Rules for addition: Add the two signed numbers. Discard any final carries. The result is in signed form. Examples: = = = = = = = = = 9 Discard carry 8
9 Arithmetic Operations with Signed Numbers Note that if the number of bits required for the answer is exceeded, overflow will occur. This occurs only if both numbers have the same sign. The overflow will be indicated by an incorrect sign bit. Two examples are: = = = 126 Discard carry = = = +2 Wrong! The answer is incorrect and the sign bit has changed. 9
10 Arithmetic Operations with Signed Numbers Rules for subtraction: 2 s complement the subtrahend and add the numbers. Discard any final carries. The result is in signed form. Repeat the examples done previously, but subtract: (+30) (+15) 2 s complement subtrahend and add: = = = (+14) (17) = = = (1) (8) = = = +7 Discard carry Discard carry 10
11 Complements of Binary Numbers 1 s complement Change all 1s to 0s and all 0s to 1s
12 Complements of Binary Numbers 2 s complement Find 1 s complement and then add s complement Input bits Adder Output bits (sum) Carry In (add 1) 2 s complement
13 Arithmetic Operations with Signed Numbers Addition of Signed Numbers The parts of an addition function are: Augend  The first number Addend  The second number Sum  The result Numbers are always added two at a time. 13
14 Arithmetic Operations with Signed Numbers Four conditions for adding numbers: 1. Both numbers are positive. 2. A positive number that is larger than a negative number. 3. A negative number that is larger than a positive number. 4. Both numbers are negative. 14
15 Arithmetic Operations with Signed Signs for Addition Numbers When both numbers are positive, the sum is positive. When the larger number is positive and the smaller is negative, the sum is positive. The carry is discarded. 15
16 Arithmetic Operations with Signed Signs for Addition Numbers When the larger number is negative and the smaller is positive, the sum is negative (2 s complement form). When both numbers are negative, the sum is negative (2 s complement form). The carry bit is discarded. 16
17 Examples (8 bit numbers) Add 7 and 4 (both positive) Add 15 and 6 (positive > negative) Discard carry Add 16 and 24 (negative > positive) Sign bit is negative so negative number in 2 s complement form Add 5 and 9 (both negative) Discard carry
18 Overflow Overflow occurs when number of bits in sum exceeds number of bits in addend or augend. Overflow is indicated by the wrong sign. Occurs only when both numbers are positive or both numbers are negative Sign Incorrect Magnitude Incorrect
19 Arithmetic Operations with Signed Numbers Subtraction of Signed Numbers The parts of a subtraction function are: Minuend  The first number Subtrahend  The second number Difference  The result Subtraction is addition with the sign of the subtrahend changed. 19
20 Arithmetic Operations with Signed Subtraction Numbers The sign of a positive or negative binary number is changed by taking its 2 s complement To subtract two signed numbers, take the 2 s complement of the subtrahend and add. Discard any final carry bit. 20
21 Subtraction Examples Find 8 minus 3. Discard carry Find 12 minus 9. Find 25 minus 19. Discard carry Find 120 minus Minuend Subtrahend Difference 21
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