# ISA 563 : Fundamentals of Systems Programming

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1 ISA 563 : Fundamentals of Systems Programming Variables, Primitive Types, Operators, and Expressions September 4 th 2008

2 Outline Define Expressions Discuss how to represent data in a program variable name variable type List and discuss the properties of primitives types List and discuss basic operations on variables

3 Readings TCPL Section 1.2 Variables and Arithmetic Expressions TCPL Chapter 2 Types, Operators, and Expressions

4 Expressions A C program is a sequence of statements A C program is a collection of functions and the data those functions operate on The building blocks of statements are expressions: combinations of language key words, function calls, operators, and operands that evaluate to a value

5 Review: What is a Program? A program is a sequence of instructions that operates on data A C program is a collection of variables and functions that process the data held in those variables Computers process long strings of 1's and 0's need a way to refer to portions of those strings as higher level data objects

6 Variables

7 A variable is a container for data dsalkjdlkajdlk ajdjfjf028f.f. 2q4fqd09024CVv jsoive avvvvv8vea eeee0xrrtlkjaa vvvv..eaaf0000 Unstructured Data 345 Michael Patient SSN: Structured Data

8 What exactly is a Variable? A variable is the concept of a piece of structured data that can be accessed (read or modified) via well known, standard rules A variable is NOT JUST the data it contains! A variable also has: a name or identifier that provides a way to refer to it a type that defines its size (how much memory it uses) a location or memory address specifying where the data is stored

9 Example:: Simple Integer Values Suppose we want to write a program for processing a student's grades Need a variable to hold the total score Variable name: value total_score: 345

10 Example:: Variable Declaration Declaring a variable is a standard action to let the rest of the program know about a piece of data that will be used. The following program statement declares (that is, tells the computer to set aside a memory location) an integer variable called 'total_score' int total_score; type variable name

11 Declaring Variables Variables are usually declared at the beginning of the program or function they are used in Variable names can be any combination of letters, numbers, or underscores, but must start with a letter or underscore Variable names should be descriptive; avoid names like 'ab', 'x', 'tmp', etc. Make sure you don't try to name a variable after a reserved word (if, for, while, switch...)

12 A Simple Statement: Initialization You can initialize a variable when you declare it This gives the variable a definite starting value To initialize a variable, use an assignment statement. An assignment statement computes the value of the expression on the right hand side and stores it in the variable named on the left hand side. = should be read stores the result of int total_score = 0;

13 Initializing a Variable int total_score = 0; //... //... int main() { //... } C Program total_score: address value Computer Memory

14 Subtle Point About Variable Names When you program, you see the variable name When the computer executes your program, it actually sees the variable memory address In both cases, the data is used behind the scenes

15 Types

16 Variable Types A type is a hint to the computer on how to handle the data contained in or referred to by the variable usually this involves size of the storage allocated There are 4 primitive (basic) types in C: int (regular integer) char (1 character) float (single precision floating point number) double (double precision floating point number)

17 Type Modifiers Types can be augmented by additional information Some simple type qualifiers are listed below: short (applied to int) long (applied to int) unsigned (only positive values and 0) signed const (specifies that the value can't be changed) We usually drop the 'int' when specifying short or long

18 showsize Demo

19 Output (sizes are in # of bytes) code]\$ make showsize gcc -Wall -g -o showsize showsize.c code]\$./showsize sizeof(int) = 4 sizeof(char) = 1 sizeof(long) = 4 sizeof(short) = 2 sizeof(float) = 4 sizeof(double) = 8 sizeof(long double) = 12 code]\$

20 consttest Demo

21 Language Operators

22 Operators Overview You are familiar with many operators from basic math and logic: addition (+), subtraction ( ), multiplication (*), division (/) AND (&&), OR ( ), NOT (!) Operators are basically common functions that take their input and produce some output Common enough to have their own symbols in a programming language (see above)

23 Operators (cont.) C has many operators Some you are familiar with (see previous page) Some not: mod, bitwise AND, OR, XOR, relational Operators are: unary (take one argument, e.g.,! ) binary (take two arguments, e.g., + */<>==) ternary (take three arguments) Classifications: arithmetic, logic, relational, assignment

24 Operator Context Warning! Operators are represented by symbols. Sometimes, the symbols may mean something completely different based on context. For example: int x = -1; // the '-' operator is negation int x = 4-3; //the '-' operator is subtraction

25 Arithmetic Operators Addition is represented by + e.g., sum = x+y; Subtraction is rep. by e.g., diff = x y; Multiplication is rep. by * e.g., scale = x * y; Division is rep. by / e.g., quotient = x/y; Modulus is rep. by % e.g., remainder = x % y;

26 Relational Operators Assignment operator is =, e.g., int sum = x; Equality operator is ==, e.g., is_equal = (x==y); Not equal is expressed by!=, not = (x!=y); Less than: < Greater than: > Less than or equal to <= Greater than or equal to >=

27 Logical Operators AND: (x&&y) OR: (x y) NOT: (!x)

28 Bitwise Operators Like logical operators, but operate on the individual bits of a variable, not the whole logical value int x = 2; int y = 1; int r = x y; printf( r is: %d,r); int x = 2; int y = 1; int r = x y; printf( r is: %d,r); Output is: r is: 1 Output is: r is: 3

29 Bitwise Operators bitwise OR: bitwise AND: & bitwise XOR: ^ one's complement: ~ left shift: << right shift: >>

30 Order of Operations PEMDAS (power, exponent, mul, div, add, sub) For everything else, use parenthesis () to say what you mean There are other rules. Learn them at your leisure while using the above two. See table 2.1 in TCPL (page 53)

31 Type Conversions (TCPL, 2.7) Read it. Key question is of the form: when I {add, sub, mul, div, mod...} an {int, float, long,...} {with, from, by,...} a {float, double, long, int...} what happens? Intermediate results are converted according to a set of rules. Basic rule is that results are automatically graduated to the type of the larger operand.

32 Casting casting is the process of forcing a type conversion Below, the integer value in sum is changed into a double type before being used, as is the result of the average score calculation. int n = 100; int sum = getsum(); double d = ((double)sum); double average = (double)sum/n;

33 Things We Haven't Covered Here Increment and decrement operators Assignment operators The ternary condition operator Short circuit boolean evaluation The nuances of type conversion Collections of data types and variables (arrays, next session)

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