# Boolean Analysis of Logic Circuits

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1 Course: B.Sc. Applied Physical Science (Computer Science) Year & Sem.: IInd Year, Sem - IIIrd Subject: Computer Science Paper No.: IX Paper Title: Computer System Architecture Lecture No.: 7 Lecture Title: Boolean Algebra - II Script Hello friends. Earlier we learnt the Boolean operations and expressions, commutative laws, associative laws, distributive laws and finally we discussed the rules of Boolean algebra in detail. In today s discussion we shall be dealing with Boolean analysis of logic circuits, and the standard forms of Boolean expressions. Boolean Analysis of Logic Circuits Boolean algebra provides a concise way to express the operation of a logic circuit formed by a combination of logic gates so that the output can be determined for various combinations of input values. To derive the Boolean expression for a given logic circuit, begin at the left-most inputs and work toward the final output, writing the expression for each gate. For the example circuit in Figure, the Boolean expression is determined as follows: The expression for the left-most AND gate with inputs C and D is CD. The output of the left-most AND gate is one of the inputs to the OR gate and B is the other input. Therefore, the expression for the OR gate is B + CD. The output of the OR gate is one of the inputs to the right-most AND gate and A is the other input. Therefore, the expression for this AND gate is A (B + CD), which is the final output expression for the entire circuit.

2 Constructing a Truth Table for a Logic Circuit Once the Boolean expression for a given logic circuit has been determined, a truth table that shows the output for all possible values of the input variables can be developed. The procedure requires that you evaluate the Boolean expression for all possible combinations of values for the input variables. In the case of the circuit in Figure, there are four input variables i.e. A, B, C, and D and therefore sixteen, i.e.2 4 = 16 combinations of values are possible. To evaluate the expression A (B + CD), first find the values of the variables that make the expression equal to 1, using the rules for Boolean addition and multiplication. In this case, the expression equals 1 only if A = 1 and B + CD = 1 because A (B+CD) = 1.1 = 1 Now determine when the B + CD term equals 1. The term B + CD = 1 if either B = 1 or CD = 1 or if both B and CD equal 1 because B + CD = = 1 B + CD = = 1 B + CD = = 1 The term CD = 1 only if C = 1 and D = 1. To summarize, the expression A (B + CD) = 1 when A = 1 and B = 1 regardless of the values of C and D or when A = 1 and C = 1 and D = 1 regardless of the value of B. The expression A (B + CD) = 0 for all other value combinations of the variables. To put these results in the truth table the first step is to list the sixteen input variable combinations of 1s and 0s in a binary sequence as shown in this Table.

3 INPUTS OUTPUT A B C D A(B+ CD) Next, place a 1 in the output column for each combination of input variables that was determined in the evaluation. Finally, place a 0 in the output column for all other combinations of input variables. Standard Forms of Boolean Expressions All Boolean expressions, regardless of their form, can be converted into either of two standard forms: the sum-of-products form or the product-of-sums form. Standardization makes the evaluation, simplification, and implementation of Boolean expressions much more systematic and easier. After completing this section, you should be able to

4 Identify a sum-of-products expression Determine the domain of a Boolean expression Convert any sum-of-products expression to a standard form Evaluate a standard sum-of-products expression in terms of binary values Identify a product-of-sums expression Convert any product-of-sums expression to a standard form and finally Evaluate a standard product-of-sums expression in terms of binary values Convert from one standard form to the other. The Sum-of-Products (SOP) Form A product term was defined in earlier discussion as a term consisting of the product of literals which are variables or their complements. When two or more product terms are summed by Boolean addition, the resulting expression is a sum-of-products (SOP). Some examples are Also, an SOP expression can contain a single-variable term, as in. In an SOP expression, a single over-bar cannot extend over more than one variable; however, more than one variable in a term can have an over-bar. For example, an SOP expression can have the term but not. The domain of a general Boolean expression is the set of variables contained in the expression in either complemented or un-complemented form. For example, the domain of the expression is the set of variables A, B, C and the domain of the expression is the set of variables A, B, C, D, and E. AND/OR Implementation of an SOP Expression Implementing an SOP expression simply requires ORing the outputs of two or more AND gates. A product term is produced by an AND operation, and the sum of two or more product terms is produced by an OR operation.

5 Therefore, as shown in the figure for the expression AB + BCD + AC, an SOP expression can be implemented by AND-OR logic in which the outputs of a number of AND gates connect to the inputs of an OR gate. The output X of the OR gate equals the SOP expression. NAND/NAND Implementation of an SOP Expression As illustrated in Figure, NAND gates can be used to implement an SOP expression. Using only NAND gates, an AND/OR function can be accomplished. The first level of NAND gates feed into a NAND gate that acts as a negative-or gate. The NAND and negative-or inversions cancel and the result is effectively an AND/OR circuit. Conversion of a General Expression to SOP Form Any logic expression can be changed into SOP form by applying Boolean algebra techniques. For example, the expression A (B + CD) can be converted to SOP form by applying the distributive law as shown here: A (B + CD) = AB + ACD

6 The Standard SOP Form So far, we have seen SOP expressions in which some of the product terms do not contain all of the variables in the domain of the expression. For example, the expression has a domain made up of the variables A, B, C, and D. However, notice that the complete set of variables in the domain is not represented in the first two terms of the expression; that is, D or is missing from the first term and C or is missing from the second term. A standard SOP expression is one in which all the variables in the domain appear in each product term in the expression. For example is a standard SOP expression. Standard SOP expressions are important in constructing truth tables and in the Karnaugh map simplification method. Any nonstandard SOP expression can be converted to the standard form using Boolean algebra. Converting Product Terms to Standard SOP Each product term in an SOP expression that does not contain all the variables in the domain can be expanded to standard form to include all variables in the domain and their complements. As stated in the following steps, a nonstandard SOP expression is converted into standard form using Boolean algebra rule six which says: ( 1) i.e. A variable added to its complement equals 1. The steps for conversion are Step 1. Multiply each nonstandard product term by a term made up of the sum of a missing variable and its complement. This results in two product terms. As you know, you can multiply anything by 1 without changing its value. Step 2. Repeat Step 1 until all resulting product terms contain all variables in the domain in either complemented or un-complemented form. In converting a product term to standard form, the number of product terms is doubled for each missing variable. The Product-of-Sums (POS) Form A sum term was defined in earlier discussion as a term consisting of the sum of literals. When two or more sum terms are multiplied, the resulting expression is a product-of-sums (POS). Some examples are

7 A POS expression can contain a single-variable term, as in. In a POS expression, a single over bar cannot extend over more than one variable; however, more than one variable in a term can have an over bar. For example, a POS expression can have the term but not. Implementation of a POS Expression Implementing a POS expression simply requires ANDing the outputs of two or more OR gates. A sum term is produced by an OR operation, and the product of two or more sum terms is produced by an AND operation. Therefore, a POS expression can be implemented by logic in which the outputs of a number of OR gates connect to the inputs of an AND gate, as Figure here shows for the expression. The output X of the AND gate equals the POS expression. The Standard POS Forms So far, you have seen POS expressions in which some of the sum terms do not contain all of the variables in the domain of the expression. For example, the expression has a domain made up of the variables A, B, C, and D. Notice that the complete set of variables in the domain is not represented in the first two terms of the expression: that is, or is missing from the first term and or is missing from the second term. A standard POS expression is one in which all the variables in the domain appear in each sum term in the expression. For example, is a standard POS expression. Any nonstandard POS expression (referred to simply as POS) can be converted to the standard form using Boolean algebra.

8 Boolean Expressions and Truth Tables All standard Boolean expressions can be easily converted into truth table format using binary values for each term in the expression. The truth table is a common way of presenting, in a concise format, the logical operation of a circuit. Also, standard SOP or POS expressions can be determined from a truth table. You can always find truth tables in data sheets and other literature related to the operation of digital circuits. Converting SOP Expressions to Truth Table Format Recall from earlier discussion that an SOP expression is equal to 1 only if at least one of the product terms is equal to 1. A truth table is simply a list of the possible combinations of input variable values and the corresponding output values (1 or 0). For an expression with a domain of two variables, there are four different combinations of those variables i.e. 2 2 = 4. For an expression with a domain of three variables, there are eight different combinations of those variables i.e. 2 3 = 8. For an expression with a domain of four variables, there are sixteen different combinations of those variables, and so on. The first step in constructing a truth table is to list all possible combinations of binary values of the variables in the expression. Next, convert the SOP expression to standard form if it is not already. Finally, place a 1 in the output column (X) for each binary value that makes the standard SOP expression a 1 and place a 0 for all the remaining binary values. This procedure is illustrated in this Example. We are to develop a truth table for the standard SOP expression There are three variables in the domain, so there are eight possible combinations of binary values of the variables as listed in the left three columns of Table here. INPUTS A B C OUTPUT X Product Term

9 The binary values that make the product terms in the expressions equal to 1 are 001; : 100; : 100. For each of these binary values, place a 1 in the output column as shown in the table. For each of the remaining binary combinations, place a 0 in the output column. So friends here we come to the end of our discussion in this lecture and therefore we sum up. We learnt about Boolean analysis of logic circuits, and then we thoroughly examined the SOP and the POS forms of Boolean expressions with their conversion into truth tables. So that is it for today. Thank you very much.

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