# ENGIN 112 Intro to Electrical and Computer Engineering

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1 ENGIN 2 Intro to Electrical and Computer Engineering Lecture 5 Boolean Algebra

2 Overview Logic functions with s and s Building digital circuitry Truth tables Logic symbols and waveforms Boolean algebra Properties of Boolean Algebra Reducing functions Transforming functions

3 Digital Systems Analysis problem: Inputs.. Logic Circuit.. Outputs Determine binary outputs for each combination of inputs Design problem: given a task, develop a circuit that accomplishes the task Many possible implementation Try to develop best circuit based on some criterion (size, power, performance, etc.)

4 Toll Booth Controller Consider the design of a toll booth controller Inputs: quarter, car sensor Outputs: gate lift signal, gate close signal \$.25 Car? Logic Circuit Raise gate Close gate If driver pitches in quarter, raise gate. When car has cleared gate, close gate.

5 Describing Circuit Functionality: Inverter Truth Table A Y A Y Symbol Basic logic functions have symbols. Input Output The same functionality can be represented with truth tables. Truth table completely specifies outputs for all input combinations. The above circuit is an inverter. An input of is inverted to a. An input of is inverted to a.

6 The AND Gate A B Y This is an AND gate. So, if the two inputs signals Truth Table are asserted (high) the A B Y output will also be asserted. Otherwise, the output will be deasserted (low).

7 The OR Gate A B Y This is an OR gate. A B Y So, if either of the two input signals are asserted, or both of them are, the output will be asserted.

8 Describing Circuit Functionality: Waveforms A AND Gate B Y Waveforms provide another approach for representing functionality. Values are either high (logic ) or low (logic ). Can you create a truth table from the waveforms?

9 Consider three-input gates 3 Input OR Gate

10 Ordering Boolean Functions How to interpret A B+C? Is it A B ORed with C? Is it A ANDed with B+C? Order of precedence for Boolean algebra: AND before OR. Note that parentheses are needed here :

11 Boolean Algebra A Boolean algebra is defined as a closed algebraic system containing a set K or two or more elements and the two operators,. and +. Useful for identifying and minimizing circuit functionality Identity elements a + = a a. = a is the identity element for the + operation. is the identity element for the. operation.

12 Commutativity and Associativity of the Operators The Commutative Property: For every a and b in K, a + b = b + a a. b = b. a The Associative Property: For every a, b, and c in K, a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c a. (b. c) = (a. b). c

13 Distributivity of the Operators and Complements The Distributive Property: For every a, b, and c in K, a + ( b. c ) = ( a + b ). ( a + c ) a. ( b + c ) = ( a. b ) + ( a. c ) The Existence of the Complement: For every a in K there exists a unique element called a (complement of a) such that, a + a = a. a = To simplify notation, the. operator is frequently omitted. When two elements are written next to each other, the AND (.) operator is implied a + b. c = ( a + b ). ( a + c ) a + bc = ( a + b )( a + c )

14 Duality The principle of duality is an important concept. This says that if an expression is valid in Boolean algebra, the dual of that expression is also valid. To form the dual of an expression, replace all + operators with. operators, all. operators with + operators, all ones with zeros, and all zeros with ones. Form the dual of the expression a + (bc) = (a + b)(a + c) Following the replacement rules a(b + c) = ab + ac Take care not to alter the location of the parentheses if they are present.

15 Involution This theorem states: a = a Remember that aa = and a+a =. Therefore, a is the complement of a and a is also the complement of a. As the complement of a is unique, it follows that a =a. Taking the double inverse of a value will give the initial value.

16 Absorption This theorem states: a + ab = a a(a+b) = a To prove the first half of this theorem: a + ab = a. + ab = a ( + b) = a (b + ) = a () a + ab= a

17 DeMorgan s Theorem A key theorem in simplifying Boolean algebra expression is DeMorgan s Theorem. It states: (a + b) = a b (ab) = a + b Complement the expression a(b + z(x + a )) and simplify. (a(b+z(x + a ))) = a + (b + z(x + a )) = a + b (z(x + a )) = a + b (z + (x + a ) ) = a + b (z + x a ) = a + b (z + x a)

18 Summary Basic logic functions can be made from AND, OR, and NOT (invert) functions The behavior of digital circuits can be represented with waveforms, truth tables, or symbols Primitive gates can be combined to form larger circuits Boolean algebra defines how binary variables can be combined Rules for associativity, commutativity, and distribution are similar to algebra DeMorgan s rules are important. Will allow us to reduce circuit sizes.

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