# Lecture 7 Logic Simplification

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1 Lecture 7 Logic Simplification

2 Simplification Using oolean lgebra simplified oolean expression uses the fewest gates possible to implement a given expression. +(+)+(+)

3 Simplification Using oolean lgebra +(+)+(+) (distributive law) ++++ (rule 7; =) (rule 5; +=) +++ (rule 10; +=) ++ (rule 10; +=) + +(+)+(+) +

4 Simplification Using oolean lgebra ssignment [ ( ) ] 8

5 Standard Forms of oolean Expressions ll oolean expressions, regardless of their form, can be converted into either of two standard forms: The sum-of-products (SOP) form The product-of-sums (POS) form Standardization makes the evaluation, simplification, and implementation of oolean expressions much more systematic and easier.

6 Sum-of-Products (SOP)

7 The Sum-of-Products (SOP) Form n SOP expression when two or more product terms are summed by oolean addition. Examples: E lso: In an SOP form, a single overbar cannot extend over more than one variable; however, more than one variable in a term can have an overbar: example: ut not: is OK!

8 Implementation of an SOP X=++ N/OR implementation NN/NN implementation X X

9 General Expression SOP ny logic expression can be changed into SOP form by applying oolean algebra techniques. ex: ( ) ( EF) EF ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

10 The Standard SOP Form standard SOP expression is one in which all the variables in the domain appear in each product term in the expression. Example: Standard SOP expressions are important in: onstructing truth tables The Karnaugh map simplification method

11 onverting Product Terms to Standard SOP Step 1: Multiply each nonstandard product term by a term made up of the sum of a missing variable and its complement. This results in two product terms. s you know, you can multiply anything by 1 without changing its value. Step 2: Repeat step 1 until all resulting product term contains all variables in the domain in either complemented or uncomplemented form. In converting a product term to standard form, the number of product terms is doubled for each missing variable.

12 onverting Product Terms to Standard SOP (example) onvert the following oolean expression into standard SOP form: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 8

13 inary Representation of a Standard Product Term standard product term is equal to 1 for only one combination of variable values. Example: is equal to 1 when =1, =0, =1, and =0 as shown below nd this term is 0 for all other combinations of values for the variables.

14 Product-of-Sums (POS)

15 The Product-of-Sums (POS) Form When two or more sum terms are multiplied, the result expression is a product-of-sums (POS): Examples: ( )( ( ( )( lso: ) )( E)( )( ) ) ( )( ) In a POS form, a single overbar cannot extend over more than one variable; however, more than one variable in a term can have an overbar: example: ut not: is OK!

16 Implementation of a POS X=(+)(++)(+) OR/N implementation X

17 The Standard POS Form standard POS expression is one in which all the variables in the domain appear in each sum term in the expression. Example: ( )( )( ) Standard POS expressions are important in: onstructing truth tables The Karnaugh map simplification method

18 onverting a Sum Term to Standard POS Step 1: dd to each nonstandard product term a term made up of the product of the missing variable and its complement. This results in two sum terms. s you know, you can add 0 to anything without changing its value. Step 2: pply rule 12 +=(+)(+). Step 3: Repeat step 1 until all resulting sum terms contain all variable in the domain in either complemented or uncomplemented form.

19 onverting a Sum Term to Standard onverting a Sum Term to Standard POS (example) POS (example) onvert the following oolean expression into onvert the following oolean expression into standard POS form: standard POS form: ) )( )( ( ) )( )( )( )( ( ) )( )( ( ) )( ( ) )( (

20 inary Representation of a Standard Sum Term standard sum term is equal to 0 for only one combination of variable values. Example: is equal to 0 when =0, =1, =0, and =1 as shown below nd this term is 1 for all other combinations of values for the variables.

21 SOP/POS

22 onverting Standard SOP to The Facts: Standard POS The binary values of the product terms in a given standard SOP expression are not present in the equivalent standard POS expression. The binary values that are not represented in the SOP expression are present in the equivalent POS expression.

23 onverting Standard SOP to Standard POS What can you use the facts? onvert from standard SOP to standard POS. How? Step 1: Evaluate each product term in the SOP expression. That is, determine the binary numbers that represent the product terms. Step 2: etermine all of the binary numbers not included in the evaluation in Step 1. Step 3: Write the equivalent sum term for each binary number from Step 2 and express in POS form.

24 onverting Standard SOP to Standard POS (example) onvert the SOP expression to an equivalent POS expression: The evaluation is as follows: There are 8 possible combinations. The SOP expression contains five of these, so the POS must contain the other 3 which are: 001, 100, and 110. ( )( )( )

25 oolean Expressions & Truth Tables ll standard oolean expression can be easily converted into truth table format using binary values for each term in the expression. lso, standard SOP or POS expression can be determined from the truth table.

26 onverting SOP Expressions to Recall the fact: Truth Table Format n SOP expression is equal to 1 only if at least one of the product term is equal to 1. onstructing a truth table: Step 1: List all possible combinations of binary values of the variables in the expression. Step 2: onvert the SOP expression to standard form if it is not already. Step 3: Place a 1 in the output column (X) for each binary value that makes the standard SOP expression a 1 and place 0 for all the remaining binary values.

27 onverting SOP Expressions to Truth Table Format (example) evelop a truth table for the standard SOP expression Inputs Output X Product Term

28 onverting POS Expressions to Recall the fact: Truth Table Format POS expression is equal to 0 only if at least one of the product term is equal to 0. onstructing a truth table: Step 1: List all possible combinations of binary values of the variables in the expression. Step 2: onvert the POS expression to standard form if it is not already. Step 3: Place a 0 in the output column (X) for each binary value that makes the standard POS expression a 0 and place 1 for all the remaining binary values.

29 onverting POS Expressions to Truth Table Format (example) evelop a truth table for the standard SOP expression ( )( )( ) ( )( ) Inputs Output X Product Term ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

30 etermining Standard Expression from a Truth Table To determine the standard SOP expression represented by a truth table. Instructions: Step 1: List the binary values of the input variables for which the output is 1. Step 2: onvert each binary value to the corresponding product term by replacing: each 1 with the corresponding variable, and each 0 with the corresponding variable complement. Example: 1010

31 etermining Standard Expression from a Truth Table To determine the standard POS expression represented by a truth table. Instructions: Step 1: List the binary values of the input variables for which the output is 0. Step 2: onvert each binary value to the corresponding product term by replacing: each 1 with the corresponding variable complement, and each 0 with the corresponding variable. Example: 1001

32 etermining Standard Expression from a Truth Table (example) I/P O/P X There are four 1s in the output and the SOP corresponding binary value are 011, 100, 110, and 111. There are four 0s in the POS output and the corresponding binary value are 000, 001, 010, and X X ( )( )( )( )

33 Rules of oolean lgebra ( )( ),, and can represent a single variable or a combination of variables. 7

34 ssignment - 7 What are the similarities and differences in SOP and POS.

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