# Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following g roups:

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1 JAVA BASIC OPERATORS rialspo int.co m/java/java_basic_o perato rs.htm Copyrig ht tutorialspoint.com Java provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following g roups: Arithmetic Operators Relational Operators Bitwise Operators Log ical Operators Assig nment Operators Misc Operators The Arithmetic Operators: Arithmetic operators are used in mathematical expressions in the same way that they are used in alg ebra. T he following table lists the arithmetic operators: Assume integ er variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then: + Addition - Adds values on either side of the operator A + B will g ive 30 - Subtraction - Subtracts rig ht hand operand from left hand operand A - B will g ive -10 * Multiplication - Multiplies values on either side of the operator A * B will g ive 200 / Division - Divides left hand operand by rig ht hand operand B / A will g ive 2 % Modulus - Divides left hand operand by rig ht hand operand and returns remainder B % A will g ive 0 ++ Increment - Increase the value of operand by 1 B++ g ives Decrement - Decrease the value of operand by 1 B-- g ives 19 The Relational Operators: T here are following relational operators supported by Java lang uag e Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then: == Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true.!= Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. (A == B) is not true. (A!= B) is true.

2 > Checks if the value of left operand is g reater than the value of rig ht operand, if yes then condition becomes true. < Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of rig ht operand, if yes then condition becomes true. >= Checks if the value of left operand is g reater than or equal to the value of rig ht operand, if yes then condition becomes true. <= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of rig ht operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A > B) is not true. (A < B) is true. (A >= B) is not true. (A <= B) is true. The Bitwise Operators: Java defines several bitwise operators which can be applied to the integ er types, long, int, short, char, and byte. Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit by bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; Now in binary format they will be as follows: a = b = a&b = a b = a^b = ~a = T he following table lists the bitwise operators: Assume integ er variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13 then: & Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. (A & B) will g ive 12 which is Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in eather operand. (A B) will g ive 61 which is ^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) will g ive 49 which is ~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the efect of 'flipping ' bits. << Binary Left Shift Operator. T he left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the rig ht operand. >> Binary Rig ht Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved rig ht by the number of bits specified by the rig ht operand. >>> Shift rig ht zero fill operator. The left operands value is moved rig ht by the number of bits specified by the rig ht operand and shifted values are (~A ) will g ive -60 which is A << 2 will g ive 240 which is A >> 2 will g ive 15 which is 1111 A >>>2 will g ive 15 which is

3 filled up with zeros. The Log ical Operators: T he following table lists the log ical operators: Assume boolean variables A holds true and variable B holds false then: && Called Log ical AND operator. If both the operands are non zero then then condition becomes true. (A && B) is false. Called Log ical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non zero then then condition becomes true.! Called Log ical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the log ical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Log ical NOT operator will make false. (A B) is true.!(a && B) is true. The Assig nment Operators: There are following assig nment operators supported by Java lang uag e: = Simple assig nment operator, Assig ns values from rig ht side operands to left side operand += Add AND assig nment operator, It adds rig ht operand to the left operand and assig n the result to left operand -= Subtract AND assig nment operator, It subtracts rig ht operand from the left operand and assig n the result to left operand *= Multiply AND assig nment operator, It multiplies rig ht operand with the left operand and assig n the result to left operand /= Divide AND assig nment operator, It divides left operand with the rig ht operand and assig n the result to left operand %= Modulus AND assig nment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assig n the result to left operand C = A + B will assig ne value of A + B into C C += A is + A C -= A is equivalent to C = C - A C *= A is * A C /= A is / A C %= A is % A <<= Left shift AND assig nment operator C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2 >>= Rig ht shift AND assig nment operator C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2

4 &= Bitwise AND assig nment operator C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2 ^= bitwise exclusive OR and assig nment operator C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2 = bitwise inclusive OR and assig nment operator C = 2 is same as C = C 2 Misc Operators There are few other operators supported by Java Lang uag e. Conditional Operator (? : ): Conditional operator is also known as the ternary operator. T his operator consists of three operands and is used to evaluate boolean expressions. T he g oal of the operator is to decide which value should be assig ned to the variable. T he operator is written as : variable x = (expression)? value if true : value if false Following is the example: public class Test { public static void main(string args[]){ int a, b; a = 10; b = (a == 1)? 20: 30; System.out.println( "Value of b is : " + b ); b = (a == 10)? 20: 30; System.out.println( "Value of b is : " + b ); T his would produce following result: Value of b is : 30 Value of b is : 20 instanceof Operator: T his operator is used only for object reference variables. T he operator checks whether the object is of a particular type(class type or interface type). instanceof operator is wriiten as: ( Object reference variable ) instanceof (class/interface type) If the object referred by the variable on the left side of the operator passes the IS-A check for the class/interface type on the rig ht side then the result will be true. Following is the example: String name = = 'James'; boolean result = name instanceof String; // This will return true since name is type of String This operator will still return true if the object being compared is the assig nment compatible with the type on the rig ht. Following is one more example: class Vehicle { public class Car extends Vehicle { public static void main(string args[]){ Vehicle a = new Car();

5 boolean result = a instanceof Car; System.out.println( result); T his would produce following result: true Precedence of Java Operators: Operator precedence determines the g rouping of terms in an expression. T his affects how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have hig her precedence than others; for example, the multiplication operator has hig her precedence than the addition operator: For example x = * 2; Here x is assig ned 13, not 20 because operator * has hig her precedenace than + so it first g et multiplied with 3*2 and then adds into 7. Here operators with the hig hest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, hig her precedenace operators will be evaluated first. Categ ory Operator Associativity Postfix () []. (dot operator) Left to rig ht Unary ! ~ Rig ht to left Multiplicative * / % Left to rig ht Additive + - Left to rig ht Shift >> >>> << Left to rig ht Relational > >= < <= Left to rig ht Equality ==!= Left to rig ht Bitwise AND & Left to rig ht Bitwise XOR ^ Left to rig ht Bitwise OR Left to rig ht Log ical AND && Left to rig ht Log ical OR Left to rig ht Conditional?: Rig ht to left Assig nment = += -= *= /= %= >>= <<= &= ^= = Rig ht to left Comma, Left to rig ht What is Next? Next chapter would explain about loop control in Java prog ramming. T he chapter will describe various types of loops and how these loops can be used in Java prog ram development and for what purposes they are being used.

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