# 9/10/2016. The Dual Form Swaps 0/1 and AND/OR. ECE 120: Introduction to Computing. Every Boolean Expression Has a Dual Form

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1 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE 120: Introduction to Computing Boolean Properties and Optimization The Dual Form Swaps 0/1 and AND/OR Boolean algebra has an interesting property called duality. Let s define the dual form of an expression as follows: Starting with the expression, swap 0 with 1 (just the values, not variables), and swap AND with OR. ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 1 ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 2 Every Boolean Expression Has a Dual Form For example, what is the dual of A + (BC) + (0 (D + 1) )? First replace the 0 with 1 and the 1 with 0. Then replace + (OR) with (AND) and vice-versa. We obtain: A (B + C) (1 + (D 0) ) The Dual of the Dual is the Expression So what is the dual of A (B + C) (1 + (D 0) )? Since we re swapping things, swapping them again produces the original expression: A + (BC) + (0 (D + 1) ) Thus any Boolean expression has a unique dual, and the dual of the dual is the expression (hence the term duality two aspects of the same thing). ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 3 ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 4

2 Pitfall: Do Not Change the Order of Operations Why Do You Care? One Reason: the Principle of Duality Be careful not to change the order of operations when finding a dual form. For example, the dual form of A + BC is A (B + C) The operation on B and C must happen before the other operation. Three reasons: CMOS gate structures are dual forms Quick way to complement any expression the principle of duality Let s start with the last, which we ll use shortly (when we examine more properties). Principle of duality: If a Boolean theorem or identity is true/false, so is the dual of that theorem or identity. ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 5 ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 6 Generalized DeMorgan is Quick and Easy Let s say that we have an expression F. To find F apply DeMorgan s Laws Apply repeatedly, as many times as necessary. Or use the generalized version based on duality: Write the dual form of F. Swap variables and complemented variables. (That s all.) An Example of Finding a Complement with the Dual Form F = AB (C + (DL G(B + A + E))) (H + (J A B)) What s F? The dual is A + B + (C (D + L + G + (B AE))) + (H (J + A + B)) So F = A + B + (C (D + L + G + (BA E ))) + (H (J + A + B )) You can skip the middle step once you re comfortable with the process. ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 7 ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 8

3 We Can Derive a Gate s Output from the n-type Network What about CMOS gate structures? Think about the network of n-type MOSFETS connecting an output Q to 0V. For example, consider a set of four n-type arranged in parallel with inputs A, B, C, and D. So Q = 0 if ANY of the transistors is on. In other words, Q is 0 when A + B + C + D. Thus Q = (A + B + C + D). A NOR gate. We Can Also Derive Function from the p-type Network What about the p-type transistors on the same gate? They are arranged in series. They connect Q to V dd. But p-type transistors are on when their gates are set to 0. So Q = 1 when ALL of the inputs are 0. Thus Q = A B C D. That s the same expression, of course. ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 9 ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 10 The Expressions are Related via Generalized DeMorgan But notice that we can also get the second form by applying generalized DeMorgan to the first form. Starting with Q = (A + B + C + D), we find the dual of A+B+C+D to be ABCD, so Q = A B C D. The Networks are Dual Forms of One Another The complemented variables come from the use of p-type transistors. The dual form is built into the gate design. If we want to design a gate for something OTHER than NAND, NOR, NOT: Write the output as Q = (expression), Build that expression from n-type MOSFETs. Build the dual of the expression from p-type MOSFETs. ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 11 ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 12

4 An Example of an Unusual Gate Consider the gate here: From the n-type network, Q = ((A + B) C) The dual of the expression (ignoring the complement) is AB + C which is the structure of the p-type network. Area and Speed for the Unusual Gate So the function Q = ((A + B) C) requires six transistors and one gate delay. We can, of course, limit ourselves to NAND/NOR gates. In that case, Q = ((A B ) C) We use one two-input NAND for (A B ), and a second two-input NAND for Q. If we assume that A and B are available, the NAND design requires eight transistors and two gate delays. ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 13 ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 14 Optimization versus Abstraction Most designers just use NAND and NOR (or, today, even higher-level abstractions!). In general: breaking abstraction boundaries can give us an advantage, but the boundaries make the design task less complex, which improves human productivity and reduces the likelihood of mistakes. That s another tradeoff. Computer aided design (CAD) tools can perform some of these optimizations for us, too. Simple Boolean Properties Easy, but useful to commit to memory for analyzing circuits 1 + A = 1 0 A = 0 1 A = A 0 + A = A A + A = A A A = A A A = 0 A + A = 1 (Each row gives two dual forms.) ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 15 ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 16

5 More Dual Form Boolean Properties DeMorgan s Laws are also dual forms (A + B) = A B (AB) = A + B What about distributivity? Here s the rule that you know from our usual algebra A(B + C) = AB + AC (multiplication distributes over addition) It s also true in Boolean algebra: AND distributes over OR. OR Also Distributes Over AND in Boolean Algebra A(B + C) = AB + AC Now take the dual form A + BC = (A + B)(A + C) OR distributes over AND! (Note that this property does NOT hold in our usual algebra (14 + 7)(14 + 4) ) ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 17 ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 18 One More Property: Consensus The last property is non-intuitive. AB + A C + BC = AB + A C It s called consensus because the first two terms TOGETHER (when both are true, and thus reach a consensus) imply the third term so the third term can be dropped. A K-Map Illustrates Consensus Well Let s look at a K-map. AB is the vertical green loop. A C is the horizontal green loop. BC is the black loop. ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 19 ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 20

6 Consensus Has Two Dual Forms (SOP and POS) And, of course, there is another form of consensus for POS form. Start with our first form: AB + A C + BC = AB + A C Then find the dual to obtain: (A + B)(A + C)(B + C) = (A + B)(A + C) ECE 120: Introduction to Computing 2016 Steven S. Lumetta. All rights reserved. slide 21

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