# An Overview of High-Speed Serial Bus Simulation Technologies

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1 An Overview of High-Speed Serial Bus Simulation Technologies Asian IBIS Summit, Beijing, China September 11, Arpad Muranyi Vladimir Dmitriev-Zdorov Mentor Graphics Corp., 27, Reuse by written permission only. All rights reserved.

2 An Overview of High-Speed Serial Bus Simulation Technologies Asian IBIS Summit, Beijing, China September 11, Overview: Traditional vs. Emerging Approaches 2. Worst-Case Bit Sequence 3. Validating Results, Summary 4. Equalization 2

3 Traditional TD Simulations and SerDes It is possible to generate eye diagrams and BER contours with normal Time Domain simulations Benefit: all non-linear and time variant effects can be accounted for (with appropriate Tx/Rx models) Problem: it usually takes a long time to simulate, especially with transistor level Tx/Rx models 3

4 Advanced Analysis Techniques Chip and CAD tool vendors developed numerous fast algorithms in recent years Benefit: one can predict the eye and BER of huge number of bit transitions (millions) in a few seconds or minutes Problem: most algorithms rely on some assumptions which are not always true or cannot always be satisfied Note: for example: using Linear, and Time Invariant (LTI) models there are specialized linear time domain simulators (using LTI assumptions) which are orders of magnitudes faster than general purpose time domain simulators 4

5 How do These Fast Algorithms Work? Most fast algorithms use superpositioning and statistical techniques to get quick results Example: a worst case eye opening can be obtained from a pulse response by superimposing UI-wide slices of the waveform and summing them appropriately BER curves are obtained similarly but the probability of each cursor combination is also calculated using statistical techniques 5

6 Statistical Contours Illustration: The innermost contour corresponds to the worst case eye opening The worst case contour alone doesn t tell us of the probability a trace may reach a particular region The nested contours confine the areas a trace may enter with a certain probability:, 1e-3, 1e-27 1e-3, etc... Statistical contours are what we d get if we built the set of eye contours for increasingly longer sequences 6

7 Additional Effects Cross talk and jitter increases the complexity of the algorithms is the aggressor signal synchronized with the victim? deterministic and random jitter must be handled differently etc Multi-tap, equalization, clock recovery features require additional algorithms Encoded data needs special attention 8b1b and similar encoding schemes eliminate certain data patterns and result in a more open eye naturally 7

8 Crosstalk Illustration Since crosstalk responses add to the self-response, the PDFs of the crosstalk responses and the self-response must be convolved However, the crosstalk PDFs must be defined differently depending on whether the signals of the victim and aggressor(s) are synchronized 1UI 1UI p( x, τ) where: p is the probability density function (PDF), x is the argument of the PDF, τ is the synchronization variable (phase or delay) T is the bit period 1 p( x) = p( x, τ ) dτ T For synchronous crosstalk (left), we need to define a PDF for each slice along unit interval. For asynchronous crosstalk (right), we define uniform PDF by averaging all the crosstalk PDFs T 8

9 Jitter Illustration Random jitter has unlimited Gaussian distribution. It may close the eye (at low levels of probability) we characterize random jitter by defining both statistical (sigma/bit interval ratio) and frequency properties (median frequency/bit rate ratio) Deterministic sinusoidal jitter has 1/sqrt(1-x 2 ) type PDF. (Some use a double dirac delta function as a simplification). It may close the eye only if the magnitude is large enough it is characterized by magnitude and frequency measure We account for jitter in statistical and time-domain simulation (eye-contour, traces and bathtub) Gaussian Sinusoidal Further reading on jitter: 9

10 Jitter Effects on Bathtub Curves Time offset in UI Red - no jitter Blue - sinusoidal jitter, magnitude to bit interval ratio is.2 Green - gaussian random jitter, sigma to bit interval ratio.5 Black - both random and sinusoidal jitter 1

11 An Overview of High-Speed Serial Bus Simulation Technologies Asian IBIS Summit, Beijing, China September 11, Overview: Traditional vs. Emerging Approaches 2. Worst-Case Bit Sequence 3. Validating Results, Summary 4. Equalization 11

12 Verification at Worst Case How do we Know we Have the Correct Answers? We can find what data sequence generates the worst eye contour and then using the same sequence we can run time domain simulations to check whether we get the same eye contour Problem: how do we find the true worst case? LTI models used in fast algorithms may give a different worst case sequence from the actual worst case sequence we would get using non-lti models 12

13 Worst Sequence (WS) The WS is unique for any combination of channel and pulse width For a given channel and pulse width, we can find a WS directly that generates the worst eye in a fraction of a second If WS contains 5 pulses, the probability to find WS & worst eye by applying a long random sequence would be 1 in 2 5, or less than 1 in 1e 15 We can also find the WS directly for encoded data sequences, such as 8b1b Eye built from long PRBS Same when input sequence contains the worst sequence 2 Gbps rate 2 Gbps rate 13

14 Why are the tails of the PDF so important? A B PDF of eye slice at line A or B S=1 S=1 This small red area contains all of the bit errors (BE), and the lower bound on the PDF (green line) is the worst case From here we can see how important it is to generate an accurate tail for the PDF. The lower bound of the PDF is determined by the worst case sequence. Without knowing this bound, an accurate BER estimation is not possible. 14

15 What does a true PDF look like? Two PDFs with the same expected value and similar mean deviations may produce both under- (A) and over-estimation (B) of the BER. * The central limit Theorem states that the sum of many independent and identically distributed random variables tends to have Gaussian distribution. However, the cursors typically have very different magnitudes therefore the associated values are not identically distributed. True PDF Gaussian PDF A B 15

16 Data Encoding and WS Prediction Unconstrained worst case sequence results in a closed eye (pessimistic) A 1k-bit long random 8b1b input sequence results in an eye that is better than reality (optimistic) A 4-bit long worst 8b1b input sequence yields a realistic worst case eye while complying with the protocol 16

17 An Overview of High-Speed Serial Bus Simulation Technologies Asian IBIS Summit, Beijing, China September 11, Overview: Traditional vs. Emerging Approaches 2. Worst-Case Bit Sequence 3. Validating Results, Summary 4. Equalization 17

18 Additional Checks and Tests We can check the effects of non linearity by overlaying the waveforms of full transistor level models with the waveforms of behavioral models used in the fast tools Comparing the results of the various responses can help to find the amount of non-linearity rising/falling step, pulse, impulse We can run a huge number of bit transitions with fast time domain simulations and correlate its results with the results of statistical algorithms remember, there are fast time domain simulation techniques (using LTI assumptions) that make trillions of bits simulations possible (in the time domain) 18

19 Cross-Verification Flow SPICE-level simulation Here we pass detailed pulse/step responses from SPICE to Fast Eye. A few-pulse long SPICE waveforms can be verified to those from Fast Eye time domain. Then Fast Eye time domain may proceed with billion bits Time-domain simulation We can compare timing/voltage margins by applying worst case sequence back to the time-domain simulation, in Fast Eye or even in SPICE type simulator Worst case analysis With billions bit simulated we can already get trustable histogram and compare it against similar data from statistical analysis. Then statistical analysis proceeds to much lower probabilities (1e-15 1e-18) Statistical analysis Worst-case solution imposes bounds on statistical measures such as PDF or BER. Those can be verified 19

20 Fitted vs. Convolution-Based Algorithms Problem: convolution based algorithms use impulse/pulse/step response waveforms as input the length of the input waveform determines the length of the convolution and ultimately the accuracy and speed of the algorithm Solution: use fitted functions accuracy is independent of input waveform s length no need to limit the waveform s sampling rate or length unlimited dynamic range (accurate accounting for low frequency effects) about 1 times faster than competing approaches 2

21 Channel with Long Impulse Response A 6 ns impulse response seems to settle after 5 ns However, when zooming out, oscillations become visible Convolution-based methods become inefficient with long responses 21

22 AC Analysis Reveals Low-frequency resonances Sampled transfer function (from AC analysis with adaptive step) and fitted transfer function are in excellent agreement (error <.3%) 22

23 ISI May Propagate for Thousands of Bits Fitted data consists of 2 poles only vs. the thousands of points in the pulse response waveform that is used by the convolution based algorithm It is impossible to determine the required minimum length for the pulse response other than by trial and error Eye opening vs. # of bits in the worst case sequence Eye opening vs. length of random sequence Unconstrained WS: need a length in the hundreds b1b WS: need a length in the thousands Convolution with a 1-bit WS does not show eye closing (magenta, cyan) 23

24 BER Contours for Long ISI Propagation Unconstrained sequence L= L= L= b1b protocol L= L= L=

25 Benchmarks (Normalized to 1e6 Bits) Fit-based approach No input jitter 2 sec With input jitter 12 sec Cursor-based approach (4 bit long response) No input jitter 3 sec With input jitter 48 sec Summary: The Ratio was 15 without and 4 with input jitter However, as we saw it before from the 8b1b worst sequence, the 4 bit pulse response is still too short to cover all of the ISI effects in this particular channel 25

26 Simulation Technique Comparison Chart Modeling level Device physical + EM models What do we miss? N/A How many bits can be simulated reasonably? 1-1 Transistor + RLC (classic SPICE) A few details as we covert into lumped IBIS/VHDL-AMS + S-parameters Some device details Fast eye-diagram algorithms Nonlinearity of devices Direct worst sequence & BER Jitter-ISI correlation, DFE error propagat. infinity 26

27 An Overview of High-Speed Serial Bus Simulation Technologies Asian IBIS Summit, Beijing, China September 11, Overview: Traditional vs. Emerging Approaches 2. Worst-Case Bit Sequence 3. Validating Results, Summary 4. Equalization 27

28 Tx and Rx Equalization There are two main types of equalization Finite Impulse Response (FIR), also known as Feed-Forward Equalizer (FFE) Infinite Impulse Response (IIR), also known as Feed-Back Equalizer (FBE) Both of these can be implemented in Tx and Rx Decision Feedback Equalization (DFE) similar to IIR (or FBE) but it has a decision block (comparator) in the loop implemented in Rx only 28

29 A Typical DFE Block + + K1 K2 K3 - channel Delay Delay Delay output In contrast to linear equalization, DFE cannot suppress pre-cursors. However, it is capable of completely removing a number of the post cursors 29

30 Opening the Eye with DFE # taps = # taps = 1 Fixed coeff. Eye-diagram and contour: cursor-based approach, no DFE, no jitter The effect of applying fixed aperture 1-tap DFE, no random jitter Fixed 3-tap DFE, no random jitter Eye-diagram and contour: cursor-based approach, no DFE, no jitter Adjustable coeff. # taps = Eye-diagram and contour, the effect of 1-tap adjustible aperture FDE, no jitter Adjustible aperture 3-tap DFE, no random jitter

31 Bathtub Curves with FFE and DFE Time offset in UI FFE and DFE if applied together allow the best combined effect. If necessary, we may add random jitter and build the combined eye/bathtub or investigate bit error propagation Blue - no DFE Red - 2 tap DFE Black - 5 tap DFE and 3 tap FFE 31

32 32

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