# COMP 303 Computer Architecture Lecture 6

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1 COMP 303 Computer Architecture Lecture 6

2 MULTIPLY (unsigned) Paper and pencil example (unsigned): Multiplicand 1000 = 8 Multiplier x 1001 = Product = 72 n bits x n bits = 2n bit product Binary makes it easy: 0 => place 0 ( 0 x multiplicand) 1 => place a copy ( 1 x multiplicand) 4 versions of multiply hardware & algorithm: successive refinement

3 Unsigned shift-add multiplier (version 1) 64-bit Multiplicand reg, 64-bit ALU, 64-bit Product reg, 32-bit multiplier reg Multiplicand 64 bits Shift Left 64-bit ALU Multiplier 32 bits Shift Right Product 64 bits Write Control Multiplier = datapath + control

4 Multiply Algorithm Version 1 Start Multiplier0 = 1 1. Test Multiplier0 Multiplier0 = 0 1a. Add multiplicand to product & place the result in Product register Product Multiplier Multiplicand Shift the Multiplicand register left 1 bit. 3. Shift the Multiplier register right 1 bit. n th repetition? No: < n repetitions Yes: n repetitions Done

5 Observations on Multiply Version 1 1/2 bits in multiplicand always 0 => 64-bit adder is wasted 0 s inserted into the least significant bit of multiplicand as shifted => least significant bits of product never changed once formed Instead of shifting multiplicand to left, shift product to right.

6 MULTIPLY HARDWARE Version 2 32-bit Multiplicand reg, 32 -bit ALU, 64-bit Product reg, 32-bit Multiplier reg Multiplicand 32-bit ALU 32 bits Multiplier 32 bits Shift Right Product 64 bits Shift Right Write Control

7 Multiply Algorithm Version 2 Multiplier0 = 1 Start 1. Test Multiplier0 Multiplier0 = 0 1a. Add multiplicand to the left half of product & place the result in the left half of Product register Product Multiplier Multiplicand : : : : : : : : : : : : Shift the Product register right 1 bit. 3. Shift the Multiplier register right 1 bit. n th repetition? No: < n repetitions Yes: n repetitions Done

8 Still more wasted space! Multiplier0 = 1 Start 1. Test Multiplier0 Multiplier0 = 0 1a. Add multiplicand to the left half of product & place the result in the left half of Product register Product Multiplier Multiplicand : : : : : : : : : : : : Shift the Product register right 1 bit. 3. Shift the Multiplier register right 1 bit. n th repetition? No: < n repetitions Yes: n repetitions Done

9 Observations on Multiply Version 2 Product register wastes space that exactly matches size of multiplier Both Multiplier register and Product register require right shift Combine Multiplier register and Product register

10 MULTIPLY HARDWARE Version 3 32-bit Multiplicand reg, 32 -bit ALU, 64-bit Product reg, (0-bit Multiplier reg) Multiplicand 32 bits 32-bit ALU Product (Multiplier) 64 bits Shift Right Write Control

11 Multiply Algorithm Version 3 Multiplicand Multiplier Product0 = 1 Start 1. Test Product0 Product0 = 0 1a. Add multiplicand to the left half of product & place the result in the left half of Product register Product Multiplicand : : : : : : : : Shift the Product register right 1 bit. 32nd repetition? No: < 32 repetitions Yes: 32 repetitions Done

12 Observations on Multiply Version 3 2 steps per bit because Multiplier & Product combined MIPS registers Hi and Lo are left and right half of Product Gives us MIPS instruction MultU What about signed multiplication? easiest solution is to make both positive & remember whether to complement product when done (leave out the sign bit, run for 31 steps) Multiply algorithm 3 will work for signed numbers if partial products are sign-extended as shifted Booth s Algorithm is elegant way to multiply signed numbers using same hardware as before and save cycles can be modified to handle multiple bits at a time

13 Faster Multiplication Whether the multiplicant is to be added or not is known at the beginning of the operation Provide a 32-bit adder for each bit of the multiplier One input is the multiplicand ANDed with a multiplier bit and the other is the output of a prior adder. Speed: just the oerhead of a clock for each bit of the product. log2(32)

14 Shifters Two kinds: logical-- value shifted in is always "0" "0" msb lsb "0" arithmetic-- on right shifts, sign extend msb lsb "0" Note: these are single bit shifts. A given instruction might request 0 to 32 bits to be shifted!

15 Combinational Shifter from MUXes Basic Building Block A B sel to-1 Mux 8-bit right shifter D A 7 A 6 A 5 A 4 A 3 A 2 A 1 A 0 S 2 S 1 S R 7 R 6 R 5 R 4 R 3 R 2 R 1 R 0 What comes in the MSBs? How many levels for 32-bit shifter?

16 Unsigned Divide: Paper & Pencil 1001 Quotient Divisor Dividend Remainder (or Modulo result) See how big a number can be subtracted, creating quotient bit on each step Binary => 1 * divisor or 0 * divisor Dividend = Quotient x Divisor + Remainder 3 versions of divide, successive refinement

17 DIVIDE HARDWARE Version 1 64-bit Divisor reg, 64-bit ALU, 64-bit Remainder reg, 32-bit Quotient reg Divisor 64 bits Shift Right 64-bit ALU Quotient 32 bits Shift Left Remainder 64 bits Write Control

18 Divide Algorithm Version 1 Takes n+1 steps for n-bit Quotient & Rem. Remainder Quotient Divisor Start: Place Dividend in Remainder 1. Subtract the Divisor register from the Remainder register, and place the result in the Remainder register. Remainder 0 Test Remainder Remainder < 0 2a. Shift the Quotient register to the left setting the new rightmost bit to 1. 2b. Restore the original value by adding the Divisor register to the Remainder register, & place the sum in the Remainder register. Also shift the Quotient register to the left, setting the new least significant bit to Shift the Divisor register right 1 bit. n+1 repetition? Done No: < n+1 repetitions Yes: n+1 repetitions (n = 4 here)

19 Observations on Divide Version 1 1/2 bits in divisor always 0 => 1/2 of 64-bit adder is wasted => 1/2 of divisor is wasted Instead of shifting divisor to right, shift remainder to left? 1st step cannot produce a 1 in quotient bit (otherwise too big) => switch order to shift first and then subtract, can save 1 iteration

20 Divide: Paper & Pencil Quotient Divisor Dividend Remainder (or Modulo result) Notice that there is no way to get a 1 in leading digit! (this would be an overflow, since quotient would have n+1 bits)

21 DIVIDE HARDWARE Version 2 32-bit Divisor reg, 32-bit ALU, 64-bit Remainder reg, 32-bit Quotient reg Divisor 32-bit ALU 32 bits Quotient 32 bits Shift Left Remainder 64 bits Shift Left Write Control

22 Divide Algorithm Version 2 Start: Place Dividend in Remainder Remainder Quotient Divisor Shift the Remainder register left 1 bit. 2. Subtract the Divisor register from the left half of the Remainder register, & place the result in the left half of the Remainder register. Remainder 0 Test Remainder Remainder < 0 3a. Shift the Quotient register to the left setting the new rightmost bit to 1. 3b. Restore the original value by adding the Divisor register to the left half of the Remainder register, & place the sum in the left half of the Remainder register. Also shift the Quotient register to the left, setting the new least significant bit to 0. nth repetition? No: < n repetitions Yes: n repetitions (n = 4 here) Done

23 Observations on Divide Version 2 Eliminate Quotient register by combining with Remainder as shifted left Start by shifting the Remainder left as before. Thereafter loop contains only two steps because the shifting of the Remainder register shifts both the remainder in the left half and the quotient in the right half The consequence of combining the two registers together and the new order of the operations in the loop is that the remainder will shifted left one time too many. Thus the final correction step must shift back only the remainder in the left half of the register

24 DIVIDE HARDWARE Version 3 32-bit Divisor reg, 32 -bit ALU, 64-bit Remainder reg, (0-bit Quotient reg) Divisor 32 bits 32-bit ALU HI LO Remainder (Quotient) 64 bits Shift Right Shift Left Write Control

25 Divide Algorithm Version 3 Start: Place Dividend in Remainder Remainder Divisor Shift the Remainder register left 1 bit. 2. Subtract the Divisor register from the left half of the Remainder register, & place the result in the left half of the Remainder register. Remainder 0 Test Remainder Remainder < 0 3a. Shift the Remainder register to the left setting the new rightmost bit to 1. 3b. Restore the original value by adding the Divisor register to the left half of the Remainder register, & place the sum in the left half of the Remainder register. Also shift the Remainder register to the left, setting the new least significant bit to 0. nth repetition? No: < n repetitions Yes: n repetitions (n = 4 here) Done. Shift left half of Remainder right 1 bit.

26 Observations on Divide Version 3 Same Hardware as Multiply: just need ALU to add or subtract, and 64-bit register to shift left or shift right Hi and Lo registers in MIPS combine to act as 64-bit register for multiply and divide Signed Divides: Simplest is to remember signs, make positive, and complement quotient and remainder if necessary Note: Dividend and Remainder must have same sign Note: Quotient negated if Divisor sign & Dividend sign disagree e.g., 7 2 = 3, remainder = 1

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