# A General-Purpose Computer The von Neumann Model. Concocting an Instruction Set. Meaning of an Instruction. Anatomy of an Instruction

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1 page 1 Concocting an Instruction Set Nerd Chef at work. move flour,bowl add milk,bowl add egg,bowl move bowl,mixer rotate mixer... A General-Purpose Computer The von Neumann Model Many architectural approaches to the general purpose computer have been explored. The one on which nearly all modern, practical computers is based was proposed by John von Neumann in the late 1940s. Its major components are: Input/ Output Central Processing Unit Main Memory Read: Chapter My dog knows how to fetch! He s said bit before, but not word about words But it s COLD outside Central Processing Unit (CPU): A device which fetches, interprets, and executes a specified set of operations called Instructions. Memory: storage of N words of W bits each, where W is a fixed architectural parameter, and N can be expanded to meet needs. I/O: Devices for communicating with the outside world. L04 Instruction Set 1 L04 Instruction Set 2 Anatomy of an Instruction Meaning of an Instruction Why the \$ on some operands? \$X is a convention to denote the contents of a temporary variable named X, whereas immediate operands indicate the specified value Computers execute a set of primitive operations called instructions Instructions specify an operation and its operands (the necessary variables to perform the operation) Types of operands: immediate, source, and destination Operation add \$t0, \$t1, \$t2 addi \$t0, \$t1,1 Operands (variables, arguments, etc.) Source Operands Destination Operand Immediate Operand Operations are abbreviated into opcodes (1-4 letters) Instructions are specified with a very regular syntax First an opcode followed by arguments Usually the destination is next, then source arguments (This is not strictly the case, but it is generally true) Why this order? Analogy to high-level language like Java or C add \$t0, \$t1, \$t2 implies int t0, t1, t2 t0 = t1 + t2 The instruction syntax provides operands in the same order as you would expect in a statement from a high level language. As opposed to: t0 + t1 = t2 What does that mean in C? Ans: Syntax Error L04 Instruction Set 3 L04 Instruction Set 4

2 page 2 Being the Machine! Analyzing the Machine! Generally Instructions are executed sequentially from a list Instructions execute after all previous instructions have completed, therefore their results are available to the next instruction But, you may see exceptions to these rules Instructions add \$t0, \$t1, \$t1 sub \$t1, \$t0, \$t1 What is this program doing? Variables \$t0: \$t1: 6 42 \$t2: 8 \$t3: 10 Repeat the process treating the variables as unknowns Knowing what the program does allows us to write down its specification, and give it a meaningful name The instruction sequence is now a general purpose tool Instructions times7: add \$t0, \$t1, \$t1 sub \$t1, \$t0, \$t1 \$t0: \$t1: \$t2: \$t3: Variables w 2x 4x 8x x y z 7x L04 Instruction Set 5 L04 Instruction Set 6 Looping the Flow Open Issues in our Simple Model Operations to change the flow of sequential execution A jump instruction with opcode j The operand refers to a label of some other instruction Instructions times7: add \$t0, \$t1, \$t1 sub \$t1, \$t0, \$t1 j times7 An infinite loop \$t0: \$t1: \$t2: \$t3: Variables w 8x 56x 392x x 7x49x 343x y z Where are instructions stored? How are instructions represented? Where are variables stored? How are labels associated with particular instructions? How do you access more complicated variable types like Arrays? Structures? Objects? Where does a program start executing? How does it stop? L04 Instruction Set 7 L04 Instruction Set 8

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