# Verilog Dataflow Modeling

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1 Verilog Dataflow Modeling Lan-Da Van ( 范倫達 ), Ph. D. Department of Computer Science National Chiao Tung University Taiwan, R.O.C. Spring, Source: Prof. M. B. Lin. s and Practices, 2008, Wiley. Adopt Chapter 3 slides from this book.

2 Objectives After completing this lecture, you will be able to: Describe what is the dataflow modeling Describe how to use continuous assignments Describe how to specify delays in continuous assignments Describe the data types allowed in Verilog HDL Describe the operation of the operators used in Verilog HDL Describe the operands may be used associated with a specified operator 3-2

3 Why Dataflow? Rationale of dataflow: any digital system can be constructed by interconnecting registers and a combinational logic put between them for performing the necessary functions. Dataflow provides a powerful way to implement a design. Logic synthesis tools can be used to create a gate-level circuit from a dataflow design description. RTL (register transfer level) is a combination of dataflow and behavioral modeling. 3-3

4 Continuous Assignments Continuous assignment: the most basic statement of dataflow modeling. It is used to drive a value onto a net. It is always active. Any logic function can be realized with continuous assignments. It can only update values of net data types such as wire, triand, etc. Example: assign {c_out, sum[3:0]} = a[3:0] + b[3:0] + c_in; 3-4

5 Continuous Assignments A continuous assignment begins with the keyword assign. assign net_lvalue = expression; assign net1 = expr1, net2 = expr2,..., netn = exprn; net_lvalue is a scalar or vector net, or their concatenation. RHS operands can be variables or nets or function calls. Registers or nets can be scalar or vectors. Delay values can be specified. 3-5

6 Continuous Assignments An implicit continuous assignment is the shortcut of declaring a net first and then writing a continuous assignment on the net. is always active. can only have one implicit declaration assignment per net. wire out; assign out = in1 & in2; // regular continuous assignment wire out = in1 & in2; // implicit continuous assignment 3-6

7 Continuous Assignments An implicit net declaration is a feature of Verilog HDL. will be inferred for a signal name when it is used to the left of a continuous assignment. wire in1, in2; assign out = in1 & in2; Note that: out is not declared as a wire, but an implicit wire declaration for out is done by the simulator. 3-7

8 Delays Three ways of specifying delays Regular assignment delay Implicit continuous assignment delay Net declaration delay Regular assignment delays The delay value is specified after the keyword assign. The inertial delay model is used (default model). wire in1, in2, out; assign #10 out = in1 & in2; 3-8

9 Delays Implicit continuous assignment delays An implicit continuous assignment is used to specify both the delay and assignment on the net. The inertial delay model is used (default model). // implicit continuous assignment delay wire #10 out = in1 & in2; // regular assignment delay wire out; assign #10 out = in1 & in2; 3-9

10 Delays Net declaration delays A net can be declared associated with a delay value. Net declaration delays can also be used in gate-level modeling. // net delays wire #10 out; assign out = in1 & in2; // regular assignment delay wire out; assign #10 out = in1 & in2; 3-10

11 The Basis of Dataflow Modeling The essence of dataflow modeling is expression = operators + operands Operands can be any one of allowed data types. Operators act on the operands to product desired results. Operands: - constants - integers - real numbers - nets - registers - time - bit-select - part-select - memories - function calls 3-11

12 Operators Arithmetic << : left shift >> : right shift <<< : arithmetic left shift >>>: arithmetic right shift Bitwise ==: equality!=: inequality Reduction +: add ~ :NOT &:AND - : subtract &:AND :OR * : multiply :OR ~&:NAND / : divide ^:XOR ~ :NOR % : modulus ~^, ^~:XNOR ^:XOR **: exponent case equality ~^, ^~:XNOR Shift ===: equality Logical!==: inequality Equality &&: AND : OR! : NOT Relational >: greater than <: less than >= : greater than or equal <=: less than or equal Miscellaneous {, }: concatenation {c{ }}: replication? : conditional 3-12

13 Precedence of Operators Operators Symbols Unary Exponent + -! ~ ** Multiply, divide, modulus * / % Add, subtract + - Shift << >> <<< >>> Relational < <= > >= Equality ==!= ===!== Reduction & ~& ^ ^~ ~ Logical && Precedence Highest Conditional?: Lowest 3-13

14 Operands The operands in an expression can be any of: constants, parameters, nets, variables (reg, integer, time, real, realtime), bit-select, part-select, array element, and function calls 3-14

15 Constants Three types of constant in Verilog HDL are integer, real, and string Integer constant simple decimal form -123 // is decimal // is decimal base format notation 16 habcd // a 16-bit hexadecimal number 2006 // unsized number--a 32-bit decimal number 4 sb1001 // a 4-bit signed number, it represents

16 Real constant Constants decimal notation 1.5 //.3 // illegal // scientific notation 15E12 32E _45_e-12 String constant A string is a sequence of characters enclosed by double quotes (""). It may not be split into multiple lines. One character is represented as an 8-bit ASCII code. 3-16

17 Data Types Two classes of data types: nets: Nets mean any hardware connection points. variables: Variables represent any data storage elements. Variable data types reg integer time real realtime 3-17

18 A reg variable Variable Data Types holds a value between assignments. may be used to model hardware registers. need not actually represent a hardware storage element. reg a, b; // reg a, and b are 1-bit reg reg [7:0] data_a; // an 8-bit reg, the msb is bit 7 reg [0:7] data_b; // an 8-bit reg, the msb is bit 0 reg signed [7:0] d; // d is an 8-bit signed reg 3-18

19 The integer Variable The integer variable contains integer values. has at least 32 bits. is treated as a signed reg variable with the lsb being bit 0. integer i,j; // declare two integer variables integer data[7:0]; // array of integer 3-19

20 The time Variable The time variable is used for storing and manipulating simulation time quantities. is typically used in conjunction with the \$time system task. holds only unsigned value and is at least 64 bits, with the lsb being bit 0. time events; // hold one time value time current_time; // hold one time value 3-20

21 The real and realtime Variables The real and realtime variables cannot use range declaration and their initial values are defaulted to zero (0.0). real events; // declare a real variable realtime current_time; // hold current time as real 3-21

22 Vectors A vector (multiple bit width) describes a bundle of signals as a basic unit. [high:low] or [low:high] The leftmost bit is the MSB. Both nets and reg data types can be declared as vectors. The default is 1-bit vector or called scalar. 3-22

23 Bit-Select and Part-Select Bit-Select and Part-Select integer and time can also be accessed by bit-select or partselect. real and realtime are not allowed to be accessed by bitselect or part-select. Constant part select: data_bus[3:0], bus[3] Variable part select: [<starting_bit>+:width]: data_bus[8+:8] [<starting_bit>-:width]: data_bus[15-:8] 3-23

24 Array and Memory Elements Array and Memory Elements all net and variable data types are allowed to be declared as multi-dimensional arrays. an array element can be a scalar or a vector if the element is a net or reg data type. wire a[3:0]; // a scalar wire array of 4 elements reg d[7:0]; // a scalar reg array of 8 elements wire [7:0] x[3:0]; // an 8-bit wire array of 4 elements reg [31:0] y[15:0]; // a 32-bit reg array of 16 elements integer states [3:0]; // an integer array of 4 elements time current[5:0]; // a time array of 6 elements 3-24

25 Memory The Memory Memory is used to model a read-only memory (ROM), a random access memory (RAM), and a register file. Reference to a memory may be made to a whole word or a portion of a word of memory. reg [3:0] mema [7:0]; // 1-d array of 4-bit vector reg [7:0] memb [3:0][3:0]; // 2-d array of 8-bit vector wire sum [7:0][3:0]; // 2-d array of scalar wire mema[4][3] // the 3rd bit of 4th element mema[5][7:4] // the higher four bits of 5th element memb[3][1][1:0] // the lower two bits of [3][1]th element sum[5][0] // [5][0]th element 3-25

26 Bitwise Operators Bitwise operators They perform a bit-by-bit operation on two operands. A z is treated as x in bit-wise operation. The shorter operand is zero-extended to match the length of the longer operand. Symbol ~ & ^ ~^, ^~ Operation Bitwise negation Bitwise and Bitwise or Bitwise exclusive or Bitwise exclusive nor 3-26

27 An Example --- A 4-to-1 MUX module mux41_dataflow(i0, i1, i2, i3, s1, s0, out); // Port declarations input i0, i1, i2, i3; input s1, s0; i0 s1 output out; s0 // Using basic and, or, not logic operators. assign out = (~s1 & ~s0 & i0) i1 (~s1 & s0 & i1) (s1 & ~s0 & i2) (s1 & s0 & i3) ; endmodule un1_out un4_out out out i2 un6_out i3 un8_out 3-27

28 Arithmetic operators Arithmetic Operators If any operand bit has a value x, then the result is x. The operators + and can also used as unary operators to represent signed numbers. Modulus operators produce the remainder from the division of two numbers. In Verilog HDL, 2 s complement is used to represent negative numbers. Symbol + - * / Operation Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division ** Exponent (power) % Modulus 3-28

29 Concatenation and Replication Concatenation operators Operators The operands must be sized. Operands can be scalar nets or registers, vector nets or registers, bit-select, part-select, or sized constants. Example: y = {a, b[0], c[1]}; Replication operators They specify how many times to replicate the number inside the braces. Example: y = {a, 4{b[0]}, c[1]}; Symbol {, } {const_expr{}} Operation Concatenation Replication 3-29

30 An Example - A 4-bit Full Adder module four_bit_adder(x, y, c_in, sum, c_out); // I/O port declarations input [3:0] x, y; // declare as a 4-bit array input c_in; output [3:0] sum; // declare as a 4-bit array output c_out; // Specify the function of a 4-bit adder. assign {c_out, sum} = x + y + c_in; endmodule x[3:0] [3:0] [3:0] y[3:0] [3:0] + [3:0] [4:0] [3:0] [3:0] [3:0] sum[3:0] c_in sum_1[4:0] sum[3:0] [4] c_out 3-30

31 Another Example - A 4-bit two s complement adder module twos_adder(x, y, c_in, sum, c_out); // I/O port declarations input [3:0] x, y; // declare as a 4-bit array input c_in; output [3:0] sum; // declare as a 4-bit array output c_out; wire [3:0] t; // outputs of xor gates // Specify the function of a two's complement adder assign t = y ^ {4{c_in}}; assign {c_out, sum} = x + t + c_in; endmodule x[3:0] y[3:0] [3:0] [3:0] [3:0] [3:0] [3:0] + [3:0] [4:0] [3:0] [3:0] [3:0] sum[3:0] c_in t[3:0] sum_1[4:0] sum[3:0] [4] c_out 3-31

32 Reduction operators Reduction Operators perform only on one vector operand. carry out a bit-wise operation on a single vector operand and yield a 1-bit result. work bit by bit from right to left. Symbol & ~& ~ ^ ~^, ^~ Operation Reduction and Reduction nand Reduction or Reduction nor Reduction exclusive or Reduction exclusive nor 3-32

33 Reduction Operators --- A 9-Bit Parity Generator module parity_gen_9b_reduction(x, ep,op); // I/O port declarations input [8:0] x; output ep, op; // dataflow modeling using reduction operator assign ep = ^x; // even parity generator assign op = ~ep; // odd parity generator endmodule [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] op op x[8:0] [8:0] [8] ep ep 3-33

34 Reduction Operators --- An All- Bit-Zero/One detector module all_bit_01_detector_reduction(x, zero,one); // I/O port declarations input [7:0] x; output zero, one; // dataflow modeling assign zero = ~( x); // all-bit zero detector assign one = &x; // all-bit one detector endmodule [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] un1_zero zero x[7:0] [7:0] [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] one [5] [6] [7] one 3-34

35 Logical Operators Logical operators They always evaluate to a 1-bit value, 0, 1, or x. If any operand bit is x or z, it is equivalent to x and treated as a false condition by simulators. Symbol! && Operation Logical negation Logical and Logical or 3-35

36 Relational Operators Relational operators They return logical value 1 if the expression is true and 0 if the expression is false. The expression takes a value x if there are any unknown (x) or z bits in the operands. Symbol > < >= <= Operation Greater than Less than Greater than or equal Less than or equal 3-36

37 Equality operators Equality Operators compare the two operands bit by bit, with zero filling if the operands are of unequal length. return logical value 1 if the expression is true and 0 if the expression is false. The operators (==,!=) yield an x if either operand has x or z in its bits. The operators (===,!==) yield a 1 if the two operands match exactly and 0 if the two operands not match exactly. Symbol ==!= ===!== Operation Logical equality Logical inequality Case equality Case inequality 3-37

38 Relational Operators --- A 4-b Magnitude Comparator O A>B O A=B O A<B A 3 A 2 A 1 4-bit comparator B 3 B 2 B 1 A 0 B 0 I A>B I A=B I A<B module four_bit_comparator(iagtb, Iaeqb, Ialtb, a, b, Oagtb, Oaeqb, Oaltb); // I/O port declarations input [3:0] a, b; input Iagtb, Iaeqb, Ialtb; output Oagtb, Oaeqb, Oaltb; // dataflow modeling using relation operators assign Oaeqb = (a == b) && (Iaeqb == 1); // equality assign Oagtb = (a > b) ((a == b)&& (Iagtb == 1)); // greater than assign Oaltb = (a < b) ((a == b)&& (Ialtb == 1)); // less than endmodule 3-38

39 Shift Operators Logical shift operators >> operator: logical right shift << operator: logical left shift The vacant bit positions are filled with zeros. Arithmetic shift operators >>> operator: arithmetic right shift The vacant bit positions are filled with the MSBs (sign bits). <<< operator: arithmetic left shift Symbol >> << >>> <<< The vacant bit positions are filled with zeros. Operation Logical right shift Logical left shift Arithmetic right shift Arithmetic left shift 3-39

40 Shift Operators // example to illustrate logic and arithmetic shifts module arithmetic_shift(x,y,z); input signed [3:0] x; output [3:0] y; output signed [3:0] z; assign y = x >> 1; // logical right shift assign z = x >>> 1; // arithmetic right shift endmodule Note that: net variables x and z must be declared with the keyword signed. Replaced net variable with unsigned net (i.e., remove the keyword signed) and see what happens. 3-40

41 The Conditional Operator Conditional Operator Usage: condition_expr? true_expr: false_expr; The condition_expr is evaluated first. If the result is true then the true_expr is executed; otherwise the false_expr is evaluated. if (condition_expr) true_expr; else false_expr; a 2-to-1 multiplexer assign out = selection? in_1: in_0; 3-41

42 The Conditional Operator A 4-to-1 MUX module mux4_to_1_cond (i0, i1, i2, i3, s1, s0, out); // Port declarations from the I/O diagram input i0, i1, i2, i3; input s1, s0; output out; // Using conditional operator (?:) assign out = s1? ( s0? i3 : i2) : (s0? i1 : i0) ; endmodule s1 s0 i3 i2 i1 i0 un1_s1_1 un1_s1_2 e d e d e d e d out out un1_s0_1 un1_s0_2 3-42

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