# Register Transfer Language and Microoperations (Part 2)

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1 Register Transfer Language and Microoperations (Part 2) Adapted by Dr. Adel Ammar Computer Organization 1

2 MICROOPERATIONS Computer system microoperations are of four types: Register transfer microoperations Arithmetic microoperations Logic microoperations Shift microoperations Computer Organization 2

3 ARITHMETIC MICROOPERATIONS The basic arithmetic microoperations are Addition Subtraction Increment Decrement The additional arithmetic microoperations are Add with carry Subtract with borrow Transfer/Load etc. Computer Organization 3

4 SUMMARY OF TYPICAL ARITHMETIC MICROOPERATIONS R3 R1 + R2 R3 R1 - R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 + 1 R3 R1 + R2 + 1 R1 R1 + 1 R1 R1-1 Contents of R1 plus R2 transferred to R3 Contents of R1 minus R2 transferred to R3 Complement the contents of R2 2's complement the contents of R2 (negate) subtraction Increment Decrement Computer Organization 4

5 BINARY ADDER / SUBTRACTOR / INCREMENTER Binary Adder B3 FA A3 C3 B2 FA A2 C2 B1 FA A1 C1 B FA A C C4 S3 Binary Adder - Subtractor B3 A3 B2 S2 A2 B1 S1 A1 B S A M FA C3 FA C2 FA C1 FA C C4 S3 S2 S1 S A3 A2 A1 A 1 Binary Incrementer x HA y x HA y x HA y x HA y C S C S C S C S C4 S3 S2 S1 S Computer Organization 5

6 S1 S Cin Y Output Microoperation B D = A + B Add 1 B D = A + B + 1 Add with carry 1 B D = A + B Subtract with borrow 1 1 B D = A + B + 1 Subtract 1 D = A Transfer A 1 1 D = A + 1 Increment A D = A - 1 Decrement A D = A Transfer A ARITHMETIC CIRCUIT Cin S1 S A X C B S1 S x1 MUX Y FA C1 D A1 X1 C1 B1 S1 S x1 MUX Y1 FA C2 D1 A2 X2 C2 B2 S1 S x1 MUX Y2 FA C3 D2 A3 X3 C3 B3 1 S1 S x1 MUX Y3 FA C4 D3 Cout Computer Organization 6

7 LOGIC MICROOPERATIONS Specify binary operations on the strings of bits in registers Logic microoperations are bit-wise operations, i.e., they work on the individual bits of data useful for bit manipulations on binary data useful for making logical decisions based on the bit value There are, in principle, 16 different logic functions that can be defined over two binary input variables A B F F 1 F 2 F 13 F 14 F However, most systems only implement four of these AND ( ), OR ( ), XOR ( ), Complement/NOT The others can be created from combination of these Computer Organization 7

8 LIST OF LOGIC MICROOPERATIONS Truth tables for 16 functions of 2 variables and the corresponding 16 logic microoperations A 1 1 B 1 1 Boolean Function Micro- Operations Name F = F Clear 1 F1 = xy F A B AND 1 F2 = xy' F A B 1 1 F3 = x F A Transfer A 1 F4 = x'y F A B 1 1 F5 = y F B Transfer B 1 1 F6 = x y F A B Exclusive-OR F7 = x + y F A B OR 1 F8 = (x + y)' F A B) NOR 1 1 F9 = (x y)' F (A B) Exclusive-NOR 1 1 F1 = y' F B Complement B F11 = x + y' F A B 1 1 F12 = x' F A Complement A F13 = x' + y F A B F14 = (xy)' F (A B) NAND F15 = 1 F all 1's Set to all 1's Computer Organization 8

9 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF LOGIC MICROOPERATIONS A i B i 1 4 X 1 MUX F i 2 3 Select S S 1 Function table S 1 S Output -operation F = A B AND 1 F = A B OR 1 F = A B XOR 1 1 F = A Complement Computer Organization 9

10 APPLICATIONS OF LOGIC MICROOPERATIONS Logic microoperations can be used to manipulate individual bits or a portion of a word in a register Consider the data in a register A. the bits of another register, B, will be used to modify the contents of A Selective-set A A + B Selective-complement A A B Selective-clear A A B Mask (Delete) A A B Clear A A B Insert A (A B) + C Compare A A B... Computer Organization 1

11 SELECTIVE SET In a selective set operation, the bit pattern in B is used to set certain bits in A 1 1 A t 1 1 B A t+1 (A A + B) If a bit in B is set to 1, that same position in A gets set to 1, otherwise that bit in A keeps its previous value Computer Organization 11

12 SELECTIVE COMPLEMENT In a selective complement operation, the bit pattern in B is used to complement certain bits in A 1 1 A t 1 1 B 1 1 A t+1 (A A B) If a bit in B is set to 1, that same position in A gets complemented from its original value, otherwise it is unchanged Computer Organization 12

13 SELECTIVE CLEAR In a selective clear operation, the bit pattern in B is used to clear certain bits in A 1 1 A t 1 1 B 1 A t+1 (A A B ) If a bit in B is set to 1, that same position in A gets set to, otherwise it is unchanged Computer Organization 13

14 MASK OPERATION In a mask operation, the bit pattern in B is used to clear certain bits in A 1 1 A t 1 1 B 1 A t+1 (A A B) If a bit in B is set to, that same position in A gets set to, otherwise it is unchanged Computer Organization 14

15 CLEAR OPERATION In a clear operation, if the bits in the same position in A and B are the same, they are cleared in A, otherwise they are set in A 1 1 A t 1 1 B 1 1 A t+1 (A A B) Computer Organization 15

16 INSERT OPERATION An insert operation is used to introduce a specific bit pattern into A register, leaving the other bit positions unchanged This is done as A mask operation to clear the desired bit positions, followed by An OR operation to introduce the new bits into the desired positions Example Suppose you wanted to introduce 11 into the low order four bits of A: A (Original) A (Desired) A (Original) Mask A (Intermediate) 11 Added bits A (Desired) Computer Organization 16

17 SHIFT MICROOPERATIONS There are three types of shifts Logical shift Circular shift Arithmetic shift What differentiates them is the information that goes into the serial input A right shift operation Serial input A left shift operation Serial input Computer Organization 17

18 LOGICAL SHIFT In a logical shift the serial input to the shift is a. A right logical shift operation: A left logical shift operation: In a Register Transfer Language, the following notation is used shl for a logical shift left shr for a logical shift right Examples: R2 shr R2 R3 shl R3 Computer Organization 18

19 CIRCULAR SHIFT In a circular shift the serial input is the bit that is shifted out of the other end of the register. A right circular shift operation: A left circular shift operation: In a RTL, the following notation is used cil for a circular shift left cir for a circular shift right Examples: R2 cir R2 R3 cil R3 Computer Organization 19

20 ARITHMETIC SHIFT An arithmetic shift is meant for signed binary numbers (integer) An arithmetic left shift multiplies a signed number by two An arithmetic right shift divides a signed number by two The main distinction of an arithmetic shift is that it must keep the sign of the number the same as it performs the multiplication or division A right arithmetic shift operation: sign bit A left arithmetic shift operation: sign bit Computer Organization 2

21 ARITHMETIC SHIFT A left arithmetic shift operation must be checked for the overflow sign bit V Before the shift, if the leftmost two bits differ, the shift will result in an overflow In a RTL, the following notation is used ashl for an arithmetic shift left ashr for an arithmetic shift right Examples: R2 ashr R2 R3 ashl R3 Computer Organization 21

22 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF SHIFT MICROOPERATIONS Serial input (I R ) Select for shift right (down) 1 for shift left (up) S 1 MUX H A A1 A2 S 1 MUX H1 A3 S 1 MUX H2 S 1 MUX H3 Serial input (I L ) Computer Organization 22

23 S3 S2 S1 S Cin Operation Function F = A Transfer A 1 F = A + 1 Increment A 1 F = A + B Addition 1 1 F = A + B + 1 Add with carry 1 F = A + B Subtract with borrow 1 1 F = A + B + 1 Subtraction 1 1 F = A - 1 Decrement A F = A Transfer A 1 X F = A B AND 1 1 X F = A B OR 1 1 X F = A B XOR X F = A Complement A 1 X X X F = shr A Shift right A into F 1 1 X X X F = shl A Shift left A into F ARITHMETIC LOGIC SHIFT UNIT S3 S2 S1 S C i Arithmetic Circuit D i Select 4 x 1 C i+1 1 MUX F i 2 3 B i A i A i-1 A i+1 Logic Circuit E i shr shl Computer Organization 23

24 ANNOUNCEMENTS Readings Chapter 4 of the textbook: Computer System Architecture, M. Mano 4-2, 4-6, 4-7, 4-19, 4-2, 4-23 Computer Organization 24

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