Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Class Subject Code Subject Prepared By Lesson Plan for Time: Lesson. No 1.CONTENT LIST: Introduction to UnitI 2. SKILLS ADDRESSED: Listening I year, 02 sem CS6201 Digital Principles & System Design S.Seedhanadevi Introduction to Unit I 45 Minutes Unit I-Lesson No.1/13 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: 4.OUTCOMES: To make the students understand basic idea of Digital circuit design i. Describe the major topics in Unit I ii. 5.LINK SHEET: Explain the need of studying digital systems i. What is digital system? ii. iii. What is the need of studying digital systems? List the major topics in Boolean algebra and logic gates 6.EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 1

2 7. LECTURE NOTES: (40 Minutes) Digital System Logic circuits are the basis for modern digital computer systems. The term digital refers to the fact that the signal is limited to only a few possible values. In general, digits signals are represented by only two possible voltages on a wire - 0 volts (which are called "binary 0", or just "0") and 5 volts (which are call by "binary 1", or just "1"). We sometimes call these values "low" and "high", or "false" and "true". Need of digital systems More complicated signals can be constructed from 1s and 0s by stringing them end-to-end, like a necklace. If we put three binary digits end-to-end, we have eight possible combinations: 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and 111. In principle, there is no limit to use binary digits, so signals can be as complicated as one like Major topics in Boolean algebra and logic gates 1. Review of number systems-is a natural choice for representing the behavior of circuits that operate in one of two states (on or off, 1 or 0) 2. Arithmetic Operations-It is imperative to understand that the type of numeration system used to represent numbers has no impact upon the outcome of any arithmetical function (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, roots, powers, or logarithms). 3. Binary codes- The alphabetic data, numeric data, alphanumeric data, symbols, sound data and video data, all are represented as combination of bits in the computer. 4. Boolean algebra and theorems-the English mathematician George Boole ( ) sought to give symbolic form to Aristotle's system of logic. 5. Boolean functions- Boole wrote a treatise on the subject in 1854, titled An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities, which codified several rules of relationship between mathematical quantities limited to one of two possible values: true or false, 1 or 0 6. Simplifications of Boolean functions using Karnaugh map and tabulation methods- A K-map consists of a grid of squares, each square representing one canonical minterm combination of the variables or their inverse 7. Logic gates-a logic gate, or simply gate, is a special circuit designed to input and output logic level voltages (voltages intended to represent binary bits). 8. NAND and NOR Implementations- Universal gates are the ones which can be used for implementing any gate like AND, OR and NOT, or any combination of these basic gates; NAND and NOR gates are universal gates 8.TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations 9.APPLICATIONS The digital system is used to represent various types of computer data. It is used to design various circuits in real time as controller, indicator etc. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 2

3 Class Subject Code Subject Prepared By Lesson Plan for Time: Lesson. No 1.CONTENT LIST: I year, 02 sem CS6201 Digital Principles & System Design S.Seedhanadevi Review of binary number systems 45 Minutes Unit I-Lesson No.2/13 Review of binary number systems. 2. SKILLS ADDRESSED: Understanding, Remembering 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: To make the students understand basic conversions in number system and enable them to apply in different design of logic circuits. 4.OUTCOMES: i. Describe the significance of binary numbers in digital circuits. ii. 5.LINK SHEET: Illustrate various conversions in number system with examples. i. What are binary numbers? ii. iii. Give the need of using binary numbers. List the types of conversions in number systems. 6.EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 3

4 7. LECTURE NOTES: (40 Minutes) Binary Number definition The binary numeral system is also called as base-2 number system, represents numeric values using two symbols 0 and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Significance of Binary Numbers The study of number systems is useful to the student of computing due to the fact that number systems other than the familiar decimal (base 10) number system are used in the computer field. Digital computers internally use the binary (base 2) number system to represent data and perform arithmetic calculations. The binary number system is very efficient for computers, but not for humans. Representing even relatively small numbers with the binary system requires working with long strings of ones and zeroes. Types of Number system conversions and its explanation 8.TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations 9.APPLICATIONS The binary numbers are used for representing various types of computer data. It is used to design various digital systems. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 4

5 Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology Department of Information Technology Class Subject Code Subject Prepared By Lesson Plan for Time: Lesson. No 1.CONTENT LIST: I year, 02 sem CS6201 Digital Principles & System Design S.Seedhanadevi Review of binary number systems 45 Minutes Unit I-Lesson No.3/13 Review of binary number systems. 2. SKILLS ADDRESSED: Understanding Learning 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: To make the students understand basic conversions in number system and enable them to apply in different design of logic circuits. 4.OUTCOMES: i. Describe the significance of binary numbers in digital circuits. ii. 5.LINK SHEET: Illustrate various conversions in number system with examples. i. Explanation for number system conversions. ii. iii. Give example for binary number system conversions Specify the areas where the binary number conversions are used 6.EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 5

6 7. LECTURE NOTES: (45 Minutes) Number system conversions The hexadecimal (base 16) number system (often called "hex" for short) provides us with a shorthand method of working with binary numbers. One digit in hex corresponds to four binary digits (bits), so the internal representation of one byte can be represented either by eight binary digits or two hexadecimal digits. Less commonly used is the octal (base 8) number system, where one digit in octal corresponds to three binary digits (bits). In the event that a computer user (programmer, operator, end user, etc.) needs to examine a display of the internal representation of computer data (such a display is called a "dump"), viewing the data in a "shorthand" representation (such as hex or octal) is less tedious than viewing the data in binary representation. The binary, hexadecimal, and octal number systems will be looked at in the following pages. The decimal number system that we are all familiar with is a positional number system. The actual number of symbols used in a positional number system depends on its base (also called the radix). The highest numerical symbol always has a value of one less than the base. The decimal number system has a base of 10, so the numeral with the highest value is 9; the octal number system has a base of 8, so the numeral with the highest value is 7, the binary number system has a base of 2, so the numeral with the highest value is 1, etc. Any number can be represented by arranging symbols in specific positions. You know that in the decimal number system, the successive positions to the left of the decimal point represent units (ones), tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. Put another way, each position represents a specific power of base 10. For example, the decimal number 1,275 (written 1,27510)* can be expanded as follows. Example: 11 = 1 x x 2 1 = 3. Illustration with examples CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 6

7 8.TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations 9.APPLICATIONS The binary numbers are used for representing various types of computer data. It is used to design various digital systems. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 7

8 Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology Department of Information Technology Class Subject Code Subject Prepared By Lesson Plan for Time: Lesson. No 1.CONTENT LIST: Arithmetic Operations 2. SKILLS ADDRESSED: Learning Applying I year, 02 sem CS6201 Digital Principles & System Design S.Seedhanadevi Arithmetic Operations 45 Minutes Unit I-Lesson No.4/13 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: To make the students understand various types of arithmetic operators and avail its operaton in designing logic circuits. 4.OUTCOMES: i. Describe the manipulations of arithmetic operators ii. 5.LINK SHEET: Illustrate their operation with examples i. Define arithmetic operation ii. iii. iv. Give the need of arithmetic operation in digital electronics List the types of arithmetic operators Illustrate the various operations with an example 6.EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) binary multiplication 1 binary subtraction 1 CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 8

10 2.The result of adding bits of a column is a sum with or without a carry. 3.Write the sum in the result of that column. 4.If carry is present, the carry is carried-over to the addition of the next left column. 5.Repeat steps 2-4 for each column, i.e., the tens column, hundreds column and so on. Example 1. Add 01 and 11. Binary Subtraction Binary subtraction involves subtracting of two binary numbers. The binary subtraction rules are used while performing the binary subtraction. The binary subtraction rules are shown in Table 3. The steps for performing subtraction of the binary numbers are as follows- 1.Start subtraction by subtracting the bit in the lower row from the upper row, in the unit column. 2.Use the binary subtraction rules. If the bit in the upper row is less than lower row, borrow 1 from the upper row of the next column (on the left side). The result of subtracting two bits is the difference. 3.Write the difference in the result of that column. 4.Repeat step 2-3 for each column, i.e., the tens column, hundreds column and so on. Example1 CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 10

11 Binary Multiplication Multiplication of two numbers based on multiplicand and multiplier The binary multiplication table is simple: 0 0 = = = = 1 Example1 Multiplicand 1011 Multiplier 101 Partial Products 1011 Binary Division Division of two numbers based on dividend and divisor Example: 1/1=0 8.TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations. 9.APPLICATIONS In computer systems, the basic arithmetic operations performed on the binary numbers is very significant because to design more number of logical circuits. Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology Department of Information Technology Class Subject Code Subject Prepared By Lesson Plan for Time: Lesson. No I year, 02 sem CS6201 Digital Principles & System Design S.Seedhanadevi Binary codes 45 Minutes Unit I-Lesson No.5/13 CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 11

12 1.CONTENT LIST: Binary codes 2. SKILLS ADDRESSED: Remembering Uderstanding 3.OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: To make the students know significance and types of binary codes 4.OUTCOMES: i. Explain the types of binary codes ii. Evaluate the significance of binary codes 5.LINK SHEET: i. Define Binary Codes ii. Give the types of binary codes iii. Elaborate the types of binary codes 6. EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) UNICODE: basic coding schemes 7. LECTURE NOTES: (40 Minutes) Binary Codes The alphabetic data, numeric data, alphanumeric data, symbols, sound data and video data, all are represented as combination of bits in the computer. The bits are grouped in a fixed size, such as 8 bits, 6 bits or 4 bits. A code is made by combining bits of definite size. Binary Coding schemes represent the data such as alphabets, digits 0-9, and symbols in a standard code. A combination of bits represents a unique symbol in the data. The standard code enables any programmer to use the same combination of bits to represent a symbol in the data. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 12

13 Types of binary codes 1. Weighted codes 2. Non Weighted Codes Weighted Binary Systems Weighted binary codes are those which obey the positional weighting principles, each position of the number represents a specific weight. The binary counting sequence is an example. Decimal Excess Code/BCD Code The BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) is a straight assignment of the binary equivalent. It is possible to assign weights to the binary bits according to their positions. The weights in the BCD code are 8,4,2,1. Example: The bit assignment 1001, can be seen by its weights to represent the decimal 9 because:1x8+0x4+0x2+1x1 = Code This is a weighted code, its weights are 2, 4, 2 and 1. A decimal number is represented in 4- bit form and the total four bits weight is = 9. Hence the 2421 code represents the decimal numbers from 0 to code This is a weighted code; its weights are 5, 2, 1 and 1. A decimal number is represented in 4- bit form and the total four bits weight is = 9. Hence the 5211 code represents the decimal numbers from 0 to 9. Reflective Code A code is said to be reflective when code for 9 is complement for the code for 0, and so is for 8 and 1 codes, 7 and 2, 6 and 3, 5 and 4. Codes 2421, 5211, and excess-3 are reflective, whereas the 8421 code is not. Sequential Codes A code is said to be sequential when two subsequent codes, seen as numbers in binary representation, differ by one. This greatly aids mathematical manipulation of data. The 8421 and Excess-3 codes are sequential, whereas the 2421 and 5211 codes are not. Non Weighted Codes Non weighted codes are codes that are not positionally weighted. That is, each position within the binary number is not assigned a fixed value. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 13

14 Excess 3 codes Excess-3 is a non weighted code used to express decimal numbers. The code derives its name from the fact that each binary code is the corresponding 8421 code plus 0011(3).Example: 1000 of 8421 = 1011 in Excess-3 Gray Code The gray code belongs to a class of codes called minimum change codes, in which only one bit in the code changes when moving from one code to the next. The Gray code is nonweighted code, as the position of bit does not contain any weight. The gray code is a reflective digital code which has the special property that any two subsequent numbers codes differ by only one bit. This is also called a unit-distance code. In digital Gray code has got a special place. Error-Detecting Code Decimal Number Binary Code Gray Code When data is transmitted from one point to another, like in wireless transmission, or it is just stored, like in hard disks and memories, there are chances that data may get corrupted. To detect these data errors, we use special codes, which are error detection codes. Parity In parity codes, every data byte, or nibble (according to how user wants to use it) is checked if they have even number of ones or even number of zeros. Based on this information an additional bit is appended to the original data. Thus if we consider 8-bit data, adding the parity bit will make it 9 bit long. At the receiver side, once again parity is calculated and matched with the received parity (bit 9), and if they match, data is ok, otherwise data is corrupt. There are two types of parity: Even parity: Checks if there is an even number of ones; if so, parity bit is zero. When the number of ones is odd then parity bit is set to 1. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 14

15 Odd Parity: Checks if there is an odd number of ones; if so, parity bit is zero. When number of ones is even then parity bit is set to 1 Error-Correcting Codes Error correcting codes not only detect errors, but also correct them. This is used normally in Satellite communication, where turn-around delay is very high as is the probability of data getting corrupt. ECC (Error correcting codes) are used also in memories, networking, Hard disk, CDROM, DVD etc. Normally in networking chips (ASIC), we have 2 Error detection bits and 1 Error correction bit 8.TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations. 9.APPLICATIONS Binary codes are used for unicode character encoding in MS word. It is also used to convert basic computer keys as binary values. Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology Department of Information Technology Class Subject Code Subject Prepared By Lesson Plan for Time: Lesson. No 1.CONTENT LIST: I year, 02 sem CS6201 Digital Principles & System Design S.Seedhanadevi Boolean algebra and theorems 45 Minutes Unit I-Lesson No.6/13 Boolean algebra and Theorems 2. SKILLS ADDRESSED: CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 15

16 Learning Remembering Applying 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: To enable the students understand basic postulates in Boolean algebra and theorems. 4.OUTCOMES: i. Describe the various properties of Boolean algebra. ii. 5.LINK SHEET: Evaluate the concept of Boolean theorems. i. Define Boolean algebra. ii. iii. iv. List the various properties of Boolean algebra Define the properties of Boolean algebra with proof Sort the postulates and theorems of Boolean algebra with proof 6.EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) Basic postulates of Boolean basic theorems 7. LECTURE NOTES: (40 Minutes) Boolean Algebra: Boolean algebra is a different kind of algebra or rather can be said a new kind of algebra which was invented by world famous mathematician George Boole in the year of In digital electronics there are several methods of simplifying the design of logic circuits. This algebra is one of the method which it can also be called is switching algebra. According to George Boole symbols can be used to represent the structure of logical thoughts. This type of algebra deals with the rules or laws, which are known as laws of Boolean algebra by which the logical operations are carried out. There are also few theorems of Boolean algebra that are needed to be noticed carefully because it makes calculation fastest and easier. In Boolean algebra a digital circuit is represented by a set of input and output signals and the function of the circuit is suppressed as a set of Boolean relationship between the symbols. Boolean logic deals with only two variables, 1 for 'True' and 0 for 'false'. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 16

17 Properties of Boolean Algebra i. Commutative Property ii. Associative Property iii. Distributive Property Definition of Boolean properties Commutative law: - Using OR operation the Law is given as - A + B = B + A By this Law order of the OR operations conducted on the variables makes no differences. This law using AND operation is - A.B = B.A This mean the same as previous the only difference is here the operator is (.). Here the order of the AND operations conducted on the variables makes no difference. This is an important law in Boolean algebra. ii) Associative law: This law is given as - A+(B+C) = (A+B)+C This is for several variables, where the OR operation of the variables result is same though the grouping of the variables. This law is quite same in case of AND operator. It is A.(B.C) = (A.B).C Thus according to this law grouping of Boolean expressions do not make any difference during the AND operation of several variables. Though but these laws are also very important. iii) Distributive law :- Among the laws of Boolean algebra this law is very famous and important too. This law is composed of two operators. AND and OR. The law is A + BC = (A + B) (A + C) Here the logic is, AND operation of several variables and then the OR operation of the result with a single variable is equivalent to the AND of the OR of single variable to one of the variable of several variables to make it simple, set BC be the several variables then A will be OR with B. Firstly and again A will be OR with C, then the result of the OR operation will be AND. The proof of this law in Boolean algebra is given below:- Proof A + BC = A.1 + BC [ Since, A.1 = A] = A(1 + B) + BC [Since, B+1 = 1] = A.1 + AB + BC = A.(1 + C) + AB + BC [Since, A.A = A.1 = A] = A (A + C) + B (A+C) A+BC = (A+B)(A+C) This law can also be for Boolean multiplication. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 17

18 Such as - A. (B + C) = A.B + A.C Boolean Theorems and their proof (i) A+AB = A Proof. A+AB = A.1 + AB [A.1 = A] ii) A(A+B) = A = A(1+B) [Since, 1 + B = 1] = A.1 = A Proof. A(A+B) = A.A + A.B = A+AB [Since, A.A = A] = A(1+B) = A.1 = A iii) A+ĀB = A+B Proof: A+ĀB = (A+Ā) [Since, A+BC = (A+B)(A+C) using distributive law.] iv) A.(Ā+B) = AB = 1 (A+B) [Since, A+Ā = 1] = A+B Proof: A.( Ā+B) = A. Ā+AB = AB [ AĀ = 0] (v) AB + ĀC+BC = AB+ĀC Proof: AB+ĀC+BC = AB + ĀC + BC.1 = AB+ĀC+BC(A+Ā) [ A+Ā=1] = AB+ĀC+ABC+ĀBC CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 18

19 = AB(1+C)+ ĀC(1+B) [ 1+B=1=1+C] = AB+ĀC (vi) (A+B)( Ā+C)(B+C) = (A+B)( Ā+C) Proof. (A+B)( Ā+C)(B+C) = (A+B)( Ā+C)(B+C+O) = (A+B)( Ā+C)(B+C+AĀ) [ By distributive law] = (A+B)(A+B+C)( Ā+C)( Ā+C+B) = (A+B)( Ā+C) [ A(A+B)= A] The other small laws of Boolean are given below. (a) A+0 = A (b) A+1 = 1 (c) A+A = A (b) A+Ā = 1 (e) A.1 = A (f) A.0 = 0 (c) A.A = A (h) A. Ā = 0 (i) A' = A Demorgan s theorem: (A+B) =A B, (AB) =A +B 8.TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations. 9.APPLICATIONS The Boolean algebra and theorems are used to simplify logic expressions which are used in designing logic circuits. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 19

20 Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology Department of Information Technology Class Subject Code Subject Prepared By Lesson Plan for Time: Lesson. No 1.CONTENT LIST: Boolean Functions 2. SKILLS ADDRESSED: Understanding Analyzing Remembering I year, 02 sem CS6201 Digital Principles & System Design S.Seedhanadevi Boolean Function 45 Minutes Unit I-Lesson No.7/13 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: To make the students know significance of Boolean function in simplifying Boolean expression 4.OUTCOMES: i. Explain the concept of Boolean function ii. Illustrate the significance of it in simplifying Boolean expression with an example CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 20

21 5.LINK SHEET: i. Define the basic concept of Boolean function ii. Give an example to simplify Boolean expression using Boolean function 6.EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) Boolean function 7. LECTURE NOTES: (40 Minutes) Boolean Functions Boolean functions consists of binary variables, the constants 0 and 1, and the logic operation symbols. A Boolean function can be represented in a truth table. A Boolean function expresses the logical relationship between binary variables. A Boolean functions can be transformed from an algebraic expression into a circuit diagram composed of logic gates. F 1 = x + y' z - The function F1 is equal to 1 if x is equal to 1 or if both y and z are equal to 1. - Otherwise, F1 is equal to 0. F 1 = x + y'z CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 21

22 Illustration with examples F 2 = x'y'z + x'yz +xy =x'z(y'+y) + xy'= x'z + xy' Simplify the following Boolean functions to a minimum number of literals. 1. x(x'+y) = xx' + xy = 0 + xy = xy. 2. x +x'y = (x+x')(x+y) = 1(x+y) = x + y. 3. (x+y)(x+y') = x + xy + xy' + yy' = x(1+y+y') = x. 4. xy + x'z + yz = xy + x'z + yz(x+x') = xy + x'z + xyz + x'yz = xy(1+z) + x'z(1+y) = xy + x'z 5. (x+y)(x'+z)(y+z) = (x+y)(x'+z) Boolean Functions Complement of a Function (A + B + C)'= (A+x)' let B+C=x = A'x' by theorem DeMorgan) = A'(B+C)' substitute B+C=x = A'(B'C') by theorem (DeMorgan) = A'B'C' by theorem associative) = (A+B+C+D+ +F)' = A'B'C'D' F' (ABCD F)' = A' +B'+ C' + D +F Generalized form of Demorgan s theorem:interchanging AND and OR, and complementing each literal Example2.: Find the complement of the functions F 1 =x'yz'+x'y'z, F 2 =x(y'z'+yz). F 1 ' = (x'yz'+x'y'z)' = (x'yz')'(x'y'z)' = (x+y'+z)(x+y+z') F 2 ' = [x(y'z'+yz)]' = x'+(y'z'+yz)' = x'+(y'z')'(yz)' = x'+(y+z)(y'+z') Canonical Forms: minterms Any Boolean function can be expressed as a sum of minterms (with sum meaning the ORing of terms). f 1 = x'y'z+xy'z'+xyz = m1+m4+m7 f 2 = x'yz+xy'z+xyz'+xyz = m3+m5+m6+m7 CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 22

23 Canonical Forms: maxterms Any Boolean function can be expressed as a product of maxterms (with product meaning the ANDing of terms). f 1 = x y z +x yz +x yz+xy z+xyz f 1 = (x+y+z)(x+y'+z)(x+y +z )(x'+y+z')(x'+y'+z) = M 0 M 2 M 3 M 5 M 6 f 2 = (x+y+z)(x+y+z )(x+y'+z)(x'+y+z) = M 0 M 1 M 2 M 4 8. TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations. 9.APPLICATIONS Boolean Functions are used in reducing the complex boolean expression by applying various postulates of boolean algebra Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology Department of Information Technology Class Subject Code Subject Prepared By Lesson Plan for Time: Lesson. No 1.CONTENT LIST: I year, 02 sem CS6201 Digital Principles & System Design S.Seedhanadevi Simplifications of Boolean functions using Karnaugh map 45 Minutes Unit I-Lesson No.8/13 Simplifications of Boolean functions using Karnaugh map 2. SKILLS ADDRESSED: Understanding Analyzing Remembering 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: To make the students know significance of K map in simplifying Boolean expression 4.OUTCOMES: CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 23

24 i. Explain the basic concept of K map ii. Illustrate the significance of it in simplifying Boolean expression with an example 5.LINK SHEET: i. Define K map ii. List the types of K map iii. Give examples to simplify Boolean expression using Kmap 6.EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) kmap1 Kmap2 7. LECTURE NOTES: (40 Minutes) K map: karnaugh Map A K-map consists of a grid of squares, each square representing one canonical minterm combination of the variables or their inverse. The map is arranged so that squares representing minterms which differ by only one variable are adjacent both vertically and horizontally. Therefore XY'Z' would be adjacent to X'Y'Z' and would also adjacent to XY'Z and XYZ'. Each square represents either a minterm or maxterm. A K-map of n variables will have 2squares. For a Boolean expression, product terms are denoted by 1's, while sum terms are denoted by 0's - but 0's are often left blank. Types of K map 1. 2 variable K map 2. 3 variable K map 3. 4 variable K map 4. 5 variable K map Illustration with examples 2 variable K map: In any K-Map, each square represents a minterm. Adjacent squares always differ by just one literal (So that the unifying theorem may apply: X + X' = 1). For the 2-variable case (e.g.: variables X, CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 24

25 Y), the map can be drawn as below. Two variable map is the one which has got only two variables as input. Example 3 variable K map There are 8 minterms for 3 variables (X, Y, Z). Therefore, there are 8 cells in a 3- variable K-map. One important thing to note is that K-maps follow the gray code sequence, not the binary one. Example 4 variable K map: There are 16 cells in a 4-variable (W, X, Y, Z); K-map as shown in the figure below. There are 2 wrap-around: a horizontal wrap-around and a vertical wrap-around. Every cell thus has 4 neighbours. For example, the cell corresponding to minterm m0 has neighbours m1, m2, m4 and m8. Example: F(W,X,Y,Z) = (1,5,12,13) CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 25

26 5 variable K map: There are 32 cells in a 5-variable (V, W, X, Y, Z); K-map as shown in the figure below. 8. TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations. 9. APPLICATIONS This is a compact way of representing a truth table and is a technique that is used to simplify logic expressions CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 26

27 Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology Department of Information Technology Class Subject Code Subject Prepared By Lesson Plan for Time: Lesson. No 1.CONTENT LIST: I year, 02 sem CS6201 Digital Principles & System Design S.Seedhanadevi Simplifications of Boolean functions using tabulation methods 45 Minutes Unit I-Lesson No.9/13 Simplifications of Boolean functions using tabulation methods 2.SKILLS ADDRESSED: Understanding Analyzing Learning 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: To make the students know limitations of K map and significance of tabulation method in simplifying Boolean expression 4.OUTCOMES: i. Explain the limitations of K map ii. 5. LINK SHEET: Deduce the advantages of tabulation method over K map i. Give the limitation of K map ii. iii. Define the advantages of k map over tabulation method Define tabulation method and explain it 6. EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 27

28 7. LECTURE NOTES: (40 Minutes) Limitations of k map: It can simplify boolean expressions for the function with 5 variables Advantages of tabulation method over k map: It can compute boolean expressions for the function with more than 5 variables Definition of Quine Mccluskey Tabulation Method: The tabular method which is also known as the Quine-McCluskey method is particularly useful when minimising functions having a large number of variables, e.g. The six-variable functions. Computer programs have been developed employing this algorithm. The method reduces a function in standard sum of products form to a set of prime implicants from which as many variables are eliminated as possible. These prime implicants are then examined to see if some are redundant. The tabular method makes repeated use of the law A + = 1. Note that Binary notation is used for the function, although decimal notation is also used for the functions. As usual a variable in true form is denoted by 1, in inverted form by 0, and the abscence of a variable by a dash ( - ). Quine-McCluskey (Tabular) Minimization Identify prime implicants (implicant tables), Identify minimal cover (cover tables) Number of variables is not a limitation Basis for many computer implementations Don t cares are easily handled.proper organization and term identification are key factors for correct results CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 28

29 1. Terms are initially listed one per line in groups Each group contains terms with the same number of true and complemented variables Terms are listed in numerical order within group 2. Terms and implicants are identified using one of three common notations full variable form cellular form 1,0,- form Quine-McCluskey : Notation Forms 1. Full variable form - variables and complements in algebraic form hard to identify when adjacency applies very easy to make mistakes 2. Cellular form - terms are identified by their decimal index value Easy to tell when adjacency applies; indexes must differ by power of two (one bit) Implicants identified by term nos. separated by comma; differing bit pos. in () following terms form - terms are identified by their binary index value Easier to translate to/from full variable form Easy to identify when adjacency applies, one bit is different - shows variable(s) dropped when adjacency is used 2. Different forms may be mixed during the minimization CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 29

30 8. TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations. 9. APPLICATIONS It can compute boolean expressions for the function with more than 5 variables CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 30

31 Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology Department of Information Technology Class Subject Code Subject Prepared By Lesson Plan for Time: Lesson. No 1.CONTENT LIST: I year, 02 sem CS6201 Digital Principles & System Design S.Seedhanadevi Simplifications of Boolean functions using tabulation methods 45 Minutes Unit I-Lesson No.10/13 Simplifications of Boolean functions using tabulation methods 2.SKILLS ADDRESSED: Remembering Learning Applying 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: To enable the students understand the rules of tabulation method and make them illustrate the method using examples 4.OUTCOMES: i. Explain the rules of tabular method ii. 5. LINK SHEET: Illustrate the method using examples i. Discuss the rules of tabulation method ii. Give examples to know the concept of tabulation method 6.EVOCATION:(5 Minutes) 7. LECTURE NOTES: (40 Minutes) Rules of tabulation method The algorithm may be performed manually using the following steps: 1. Have available the minterms of the function to be minimized. There may be X's for don't care cases. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 31

32 2. Create groups of minterms, starting with the minterms with the fewest number of ones. 3. All minterms in a group must have the same number of ones and if any X's, the X's must be in the same position. There may be some groups with only one minterm. Create new minterms by combining minterms from groups that differ by a count of one. of the newly created minterm. Mark the minterms that are used in combining (they will be deleted at the end of this step). Delete the marked minterms. Repeat steps 2) 3) and 4) until no more minterms are combined.the minimized function is the remaining minterms, deleting any X's. Illustration with example Find the minimal sum of products for the Boolean expression, f= (1,2,3,7,8,9,10,11,14,15), using Quine-McCluskey method. Firstly these minterms are represented in the binary form as shown in the table below. The above binary representations are grouped into a number of sections in terms of the number of 1's as shown in the table below. 1. Binary representation of minterms Minterms U V W X Group of minterms for different number of 1's No of Minter U V W X 1's ms Any two numbers in these groups which differ from each other by only one variable can be chosen and combined, to get 2-cell combination, as shown in the table below. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 32

33 Combinations U V W X (1,3) (1,9) (2,3) (2,10) (8,9) (8,10) (3,7) (3,11) (9,11) (10,11) (10,14) (7,15) (11,15) (14,15) From the 2-cell combinations, one variable and dash in the same position can be combined to form 4-cell combinations as shown in the figure below. Combinations U V W X (1,3,9,11) (2,3,10,11) (8,9,10,11) (3,7,11,15) (10,11,14,15) The cells (1,3) and (9,11) form the same 4-cell combination as the cells (1,9) and (3,11). The order in which the cells are placed in a combination does not have any effect. Thus the (1,3,9,11) combination could be written as (1,9,3,11). Prime Implicants Table Prime Implican ts (1,3,9,11) X - X - - X - X - - (2,3,10,1 - X X X X - - 1) (8,9,10, X X X X - - 1) (3,7,11, X X X X 5) - X X - X X X - 6. The columns having only one cross mark correspond to essential prime implicants. A yellow cross is used against every essential prime implicant. The prime implicants sum gives the function in its minimal SOP form. Y = V'X + V'W + UV' + WX + UW8. TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 33

34 9. APPLICATIONS It can compute boolean expressions for the function with more than 5 variables Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology Department of Information Technology Class I year, 02 sem Subject Code CS6201 Subject Digital Principles & System Design Prepared By S.Seedhanadevi Lesson Plan for Logic gates Time: 45 Minutes Lesson. No Unit I-Lesson No.11/13 1.CONTENT LIST: Logic gates 2.SKILLS ADDRESSED: Remembering Understanding 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: To enable the students understand the types and operation of logic gates 4.OUTCOMES: i. Explain the types of logic gates ii. Discuss the operation of logic gates 5. LINK SHEET: i. List the types of logic gates ii. Deduce the operation of logic gates 6.EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) 7. LECTURE NOTES: (40 Minutes) CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 34

35 Logic gates Binary logic consists of binary variables and a set of logical operations. The variables are designated by letters of the alphabet, such as A, B, C, x, y, z, etc, with each variable having two and only two distinct possible values: 1 and 0, There are three basic logical operations: AND, OR, and NOT. Types of logic gates AND,OR,NOT,NAND,NOR,XOR, XNOR Logic gates truth table and its operation AND Gate The AND gate performs logical multiplication, commonly known as AND function. The AND gate has two or more inputs and single output. The output of AND gate is HIGH only when all its inputs are HIGH (i.e. even if one input is LOW, Output will be LOW). OR Gate The OR gate performs logical addition, commonly known as OR function. The OR gate has two or more inputs and single output. The output of OR gate is HIGH only when any one of its inputs are HIGH (i.e. even if one input is HIGH, Output will be HIGH). If X and Y are two inputs, then output F can be represented mathematically as F = X+Y. Here plus sign (+) denotes the OR operation. Truth table and symbol of the OR gate is shown in the figure below. NOT Gate The NOT gate performs the basic logical function called inversion or complementation. NOT gate is also called inverter. The purpose of this gate is to convert one logic level into the opposite logic level. It has one input and one output. When a HIGH level is applied to an inverter, a LOW level appears on its output and vice versa. If X is the input, then output F can be represented mathematically as F = X', Here apostrophe (') denotes the NOT (inversion) operation. There are a couple of other ways to represent inversion, F=!X, here! represents inversion. Truth table and NOT gate symbol is shown in the figure below. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 35

36 The three simplest gates are the AND, OR, and NOT gates. They correspond directly to their respective Boolean operations, as you can see by their truth tables. Another very useful gate is the exclusive OR (XOR) gate. XOR Gate An Exclusive-OR (XOR) gate is gate with two or three or more inputs and one output. The output of a two-input XOR gate assumes a HIGH state if one and only one input assumes a HIGH state. This is equivalent to saying that the output is HIGH if either input X or input Y is HIGH exclusively, and LOW when both are 1 or 0 simultaneously. If X and Y are two inputs, then output F can be represented mathematically as F = X Y, Here denotes the XOR operation. X Y and is equivalent to X.Y' + X'.Y. Truth table and symbol of the XOR gate is shown in the figure below. The output of the XOR operation is true only when the values of the inputs differ. NAND and NOR are two very important gates. Their symbols and truth tables are shown at the right. NAND Gate NAND gate is a cascade of AND gate and NOT gate, as shown in the figure below. It has two or more inputs and only one output. The output of NAND gate is HIGH when any one of its input is LOW (i.e. even if one input is LOW, Output will be HIGH). NOR Gate NOR gate is a cascade of OR gate and NOT gate, as shown in the figure below. It has two or more inputs and only one output. The output of NOR gate is HIGH when any all its inputs are LOW (i.e. even if one input is HIGH, output will be LOW). XNOR An Exclusive-NOR (XNOR) gate is gate with two or three or more inputs and one output. The output of a two-input XNOR gate assumes a HIGH state if all the inputs assumes same state. This is equivalent to saying that the output is HIGH if both input X and input Y is HIGH exclusively or same as input X and input Y is LOW exclusively, and LOW when both are not same. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 36

37 Graphic Symbols and Input-Output Signals for Logic gates 8. TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations. 9. APPLICATIONS Digital logic gates are used to design many combinational and sequential circuits CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 37

38 Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology Department of Information Technology Class Subject Code Subject Prepared By Lesson Plan for Time: Lesson. No 1.CONTENT LIST: I year, 02 sem CS6201 Digital Principles & System Design S.Seedhanadevi NAND and NOR Implementations. 45 Minutes Unit I-Lesson No.12/13 NAND and NOR Implementations. 2.SKILLS ADDRESSED: Remembering Learning Understanding 3. OBJECTIVE OF THIS LESSON PLAN: To enable the students understand the implementation of logic using NAND and NOR gates 4.OUTCOMES: i. Explain the basic concept of NAND and NOR gates ii. 5. LINK SHEET: Discuss the implementation using NAND and NOR gates i. Define NAND and NOR gates ii. iii. Why they are called as universal gates. Realise all logic gates only by using NAND and NOR gates. 6.EVOCATION: (5 Minutes) OR using NOR OR using NAND 1 CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 38

39 AND using NAND AND using NOR 7.LECTURE NOTES: (40 Minutes) NAND Gate NAND gate is a cascade of AND gate and NOT gate, as shown in the figure below. It has two or more inputs and only one output. The output of NAND gate is HIGH when any one of its input is LOW (i.e. even if one input is LOW, Output will be HIGH). NOR Gate NOR gate is a cascade of OR gate and NOT gate, as shown in the figure below. It has two or more inputs and only one output. The output of NOR gate is HIGH when any all its inputs are LOW (i.e. even if one input is HIGH, output will be LOW). Universal Gates Universal gates are the ones which can be used for implementing any gate like AND, OR and NOT, or any combination of these basic gates; NAND and NOR gates are universal gates. But there are some rules that need to be followed when implementing NAND or NOR based gates. To facilitate the conversion to NAND and NOR logic, we have two new graphic symbols for these gates. NAND Gate NOR Gate Realization of logic function using NAND gates Any logic function can be implemented using NAND gates. To achieve this, first the logic function has to be written in Sum of Product (SOP) form. Once logic function is converted to SOP, then is very easy to implement using NAND gate. In other words any logic circuit with AND gates in first level and OR gates in second level can be converted into a NAND-NAND gate circuit. Consider the following SOP expression F = W.X.Y + X.Y.Z + Y.Z.W The above expression can be implemented with three AND gates in first stage and one OR gate in second stage as shown in figure. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 39

40 Realization of logic gates using NAND gates: Implementing an inverter using NAND gate Input Output Rule (X.X)' = X' Idempotent Implementing AND using NAND gates Input Output Rule ((XY)'(XY)')' = ((XY)')' Idempotent = (XY) Involution Implementing OR using NAND gates Input Output Rule ((XX)'(YY)')' = (X'Y')' Idempotent = X''+Y'' DeMorgan = X+Y Involution Realization of logic function using NOR gates Any logic function can be implemented using NOR gates. To achieve this, first the logic CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 40

41 function has to be written in Product of Sum (POS) form. Once it is converted to POS, then it's very easy to implement using NOR gate. In other words any logic circuit with OR gates in first level and AND gates in second level can be converted into a NOR-NOR gate circuit. Consider the following POS expression F = (X+Y). (Y+Z) The above expression can be implemented with three OR gates in first stage and one AND gate in second stage as shown in figure. Implementing an inverter using NOR gate Input Output Rule (X+X)' = X' Idempotent Implementing AND using NOR gates Input Output Rule ((X+X)'+(Y+Y)')' =(X'+Y')' Idempotent = X''.Y'' DeMorgan = (X.Y) Involution Implementing OR using NOR gates Input Output Rule ((XX)'(YY)')' = (X'Y')' Idempotent = X''+Y'' DeMorgan = X+Y Involution CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 41

42 8. TEXT BOOKS: Sanjay Kumar Suman, L.Bhagyalakshmi, S.Porselvi, Digital Principles And System Design,Vijay Nicole Pubilcations. 9. APPLICATIONS NAND and NOR implementation are used to built all other logic gates and hence they are used to built all complex types of Combinational and Sequential Circuits. CS6201-DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Page 42

### IT 201 Digital System Design Module II Notes

IT 201 Digital System Design Module II Notes BOOLEAN OPERATIONS AND EXPRESSIONS Variable, complement, and literal are terms used in Boolean algebra. A variable is a symbol used to represent a logical quantity.

Get Free notes at Module-I One s Complement: Complement all the bits.i.e. makes all 1s as 0s and all 0s as 1s Two s Complement: One s complement+1 SIGNED BINARY NUMBERS Positive integers (including zero)

### Experiment 4 Boolean Functions Implementation

Experiment 4 Boolean Functions Implementation Introduction: Generally you will find that the basic logic functions AND, OR, NAND, NOR, and NOT are not sufficient to implement complex digital logic functions.

### Module -7. Karnaugh Maps

1 Module -7 Karnaugh Maps 1. Introduction 2. Canonical and Standard forms 2.1 Minterms 2.2 Maxterms 2.3 Canonical Sum of Product or Sum-of-Minterms (SOM) 2.4 Canonical product of sum or Product-of-Maxterms(POM)

### CHAPTER-2 STRUCTURE OF BOOLEAN FUNCTION USING GATES, K-Map and Quine-McCluskey

CHAPTER-2 STRUCTURE OF BOOLEAN FUNCTION USING GATES, K-Map and Quine-McCluskey 2. Introduction Logic gates are connected together to produce a specified output for certain specified combinations of input

### Gate Level Minimization Map Method

Gate Level Minimization Map Method Complexity of hardware implementation is directly related to the complexity of the algebraic expression Truth table representation of a function is unique Algebraically

### UNIT-4 BOOLEAN LOGIC. NOT Operator Operates on single variable. It gives the complement value of variable.

UNIT-4 BOOLEAN LOGIC Boolean algebra is an algebra that deals with Boolean values((true and FALSE). Everyday we have to make logic decisions: Should I carry the book or not?, Should I watch TV or not?

### Unit-IV Boolean Algebra

Unit-IV Boolean Algebra Boolean Algebra Chapter: 08 Truth table: Truth table is a table, which represents all the possible values of logical variables/statements along with all the possible results of

### Gate-Level Minimization

Gate-Level Minimization ( 范倫達 ), Ph. D. Department of Computer Science National Chiao Tung University Taiwan, R.O.C. Fall, 2011 ldvan@cs.nctu.edu.tw http://www.cs.nctu.edu.tw/~ldvan/ Outlines The Map Method

### Gate Level Minimization

Gate Level Minimization By Dr. M. Hebaishy Digital Logic Design Ch- Simplifying Boolean Equations Example : Y = AB + AB Example 2: = B (A + A) T8 = B () T5 = B T Y = A(AB + ABC) = A (AB ( + C ) ) T8 =

### Combinational Logic & Circuits

Week-I Combinational Logic & Circuits Spring' 232 - Logic Design Page Overview Binary logic operations and gates Switching algebra Algebraic Minimization Standard forms Karnaugh Map Minimization Other

### R.M.D. ENGINEERING COLLEGE R.S.M. Nagar, Kavaraipettai

L T P C R.M.D. ENGINEERING COLLEGE R.S.M. Nagar, Kavaraipettai- 601206 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING EC8392 UNIT - I 3 0 0 3 OBJECTIVES: To present the Digital fundamentals, Boolean

### Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates

Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates Binary logic is used in all of today's digital computers and devices Cost of the circuits is an important factor Finding simpler and cheaper but equivalent circuits can

### 2.1 Binary Logic and Gates

1 EED2003 Digital Design Presentation 2: Boolean Algebra Asst. Prof.Dr. Ahmet ÖZKURT Asst. Prof.Dr Hakkı T. YALAZAN Based on the Lecture Notes by Jaeyoung Choi choi@comp.ssu.ac.kr Fall 2000 2.1 Binary

### 2.6 BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS

2.6 BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS Binary variables have two values, either 0 or 1. A Boolean function is an expression formed with binary variables, the two binary operators AND and OR, one unary operator NOT, parentheses

### Chapter 2. Boolean Expressions:

Chapter 2 Boolean Expressions: A Boolean expression or a function is an expression which consists of binary variables joined by the Boolean connectives AND and OR along with NOT operation. Any Boolean

### Gate-Level Minimization

Gate-Level Minimization ( 范倫達 ), Ph. D. Department of Computer Science National Chiao Tung University Taiwan, R.O.C. Fall, 2017 ldvan@cs.nctu.edu.tw http://www.cs.nctu.edu.tw/~ldvan/ Outlines The Map Method

### Chapter 3 Simplification of Boolean functions

3.1 Introduction Chapter 3 Simplification of Boolean functions In this chapter, we are going to discuss several methods for simplifying the Boolean function. What is the need for simplifying the Boolean

### Chapter 2 Boolean algebra and Logic Gates

Chapter 2 Boolean algebra and Logic Gates 2. Introduction In working with logic relations in digital form, we need a set of rules for symbolic manipulation which will enable us to simplify complex expressions

### Gate-Level Minimization. BME208 Logic Circuits Yalçın İŞLER

Gate-Level Minimization BME28 Logic Circuits Yalçın İŞLER islerya@yahoo.com http://me.islerya.com Complexity of Digital Circuits Directly related to the complexity of the algebraic expression we use to

### X Y Z F=X+Y+Z

This circuit is used to obtain the compliment of a value. If X = 0, then X = 1. The truth table for NOT gate is : X X 0 1 1 0 2. OR gate : The OR gate has two or more input signals but only one output

### Chapter 3. Boolean Algebra and Digital Logic

Chapter 3 Boolean Algebra and Digital Logic Chapter 3 Objectives Understand the relationship between Boolean logic and digital computer circuits. Learn how to design simple logic circuits. Understand how

### SWITCHING THEORY AND LOGIC CIRCUITS

SWITCHING THEORY AND LOGIC CIRCUITS COURSE OBJECTIVES. To understand the concepts and techniques associated with the number systems and codes 2. To understand the simplification methods (Boolean algebra

### NH 67, Karur Trichy Highways, Puliyur C.F, Karur District DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CS 2202 DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN

NH 67, Karur Trichy Highways, Puliyur C.F, 639 114 Karur District DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CS 2202 DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN UNIT 1 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND LOGIC GATES Review of binary

### Computer Science. Unit-4: Introduction to Boolean Algebra

Unit-4: Introduction to Boolean Algebra Learning Objective At the end of the chapter students will: Learn Fundamental concepts and basic laws of Boolean algebra. Learn about Boolean expression and will

### Lecture 5. Chapter 2: Sections 4-7

Lecture 5 Chapter 2: Sections 4-7 Outline Boolean Functions What are Canonical Forms? Minterms and Maxterms Index Representation of Minterms and Maxterms Sum-of-Minterm (SOM) Representations Product-of-Maxterm

### Digital Logic Lecture 7 Gate Level Minimization

Digital Logic Lecture 7 Gate Level Minimization By Ghada Al-Mashaqbeh The Hashemite University Computer Engineering Department Outline Introduction. K-map principles. Simplification using K-maps. Don t-care

### CS8803: Advanced Digital Design for Embedded Hardware

CS883: Advanced Digital Design for Embedded Hardware Lecture 2: Boolean Algebra, Gate Network, and Combinational Blocks Instructor: Sung Kyu Lim (limsk@ece.gatech.edu) Website: http://users.ece.gatech.edu/limsk/course/cs883

### Variable, Complement, and Literal are terms used in Boolean Algebra.

We have met gate logic and combination of gates. Another way of representing gate logic is through Boolean algebra, a way of algebraically representing logic gates. You should have already covered the

### Chapter 3. Gate-Level Minimization. Outlines

Chapter 3 Gate-Level Minimization Introduction The Map Method Four-Variable Map Five-Variable Map Outlines Product of Sums Simplification Don t-care Conditions NAND and NOR Implementation Other Two-Level

### DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN

DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN UNIT I: Introduction to Number Systems and Boolean Algebra Digital and Analog Basic Concepts, Some history of Digital Systems-Introduction to number systems, Binary numbers, Number

### Digital Techniques. Lecture 1. 1 st Class

Digital Techniques Lecture 1 1 st Class Digital Techniques Digital Computer and Digital System: Digital computer is a part of digital system, it based on binary system. A block diagram of digital computer

28 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. All or Nothing Gate Boolean Expression: A B = Y Truth Table (ee next slide) or AB = Y 28

### Assignment (3-6) Boolean Algebra and Logic Simplification - General Questions

Assignment (3-6) Boolean Algebra and Logic Simplification - General Questions 1. Convert the following SOP expression to an equivalent POS expression. 2. Determine the values of A, B, C, and D that make

### BOOLEAN ALGEBRA. Logic circuit: 1. From logic circuit to Boolean expression. Derive the Boolean expression for the following circuits.

COURSE / CODE DIGITAL SYSTEMS FUNDAMENTAL (ECE 421) DIGITAL ELECTRONICS FUNDAMENTAL (ECE 422) BOOLEAN ALGEBRA Boolean Logic Boolean logic is a complete system for logical operations. It is used in countless

### Code No: 07A3EC03 Set No. 1

Code No: 07A3EC03 Set No. 1 II B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2008 SWITCHING THEORY AND LOGIC DESIGN ( Common to Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering,

### Combinational Logic Circuits

Chapter 3 Combinational Logic Circuits 12 Hours 24 Marks 3.1 Standard representation for logical functions Boolean expressions / logic expressions / logical functions are expressed in terms of logical

### LSN 4 Boolean Algebra & Logic Simplification. ECT 224 Digital Computer Fundamentals. Department of Engineering Technology

LSN 4 Boolean Algebra & Logic Simplification Department of Engineering Technology LSN 4 Key Terms Variable: a symbol used to represent a logic quantity Compliment: the inverse of a variable Literal: a

### 1. Mark the correct statement(s)

1. Mark the correct statement(s) 1.1 A theorem in Boolean algebra: a) Can easily be proved by e.g. logic induction b) Is a logical statement that is assumed to be true, c) Can be contradicted by another

### Combinational Logic Circuits

Chapter 2 Combinational Logic Circuits J.J. Shann (Slightly trimmed by C.P. Chung) Chapter Overview 2-1 Binary Logic and Gates 2-2 Boolean Algebra 2-3 Standard Forms 2-4 Two-Level Circuit Optimization

### Experiment 3: Logic Simplification

Module: Logic Design Name:... University no:.. Group no:. Lab Partner Name: Mr. Mohamed El-Saied Experiment : Logic Simplification Objective: How to implement and verify the operation of the logical functions

### ELCT201: DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN

ELCT201: DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN Dr. Eng. Haitham Omran, haitham.omran@guc.edu.eg Dr. Eng. Wassim Alexan, wassim.joseph@guc.edu.eg Lecture 3 Following the slides of Dr. Ahmed H. Madian محرم 1439 ه Winter

### Chapter 2 Combinational Logic Circuits

Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals Chapter 2 Combinational Logic Circuits Part 2 Circuit Optimization Overview Part Gate Circuits and Boolean Equations Binary Logic and Gates Boolean Algebra Standard

### Points Addressed in this Lecture. Standard form of Boolean Expressions. Lecture 4: Logic Simplication & Karnaugh Map

Points Addressed in this Lecture Lecture 4: Logic Simplication & Karnaugh Map Professor Peter Cheung Department of EEE, Imperial College London Standard form of Boolean Expressions Sum-of-Products (SOP),

### Computer Logical Organization Tutorial

Computer Logical Organization Tutorial COMPUTER LOGICAL ORGANIZATION TUTORIAL Simply Easy Learning by tutorialspoint.com tutorialspoint.com i ABOUT THE TUTORIAL Computer Logical Organization Tutorial Computer

### Gate-Level Minimization. section instructor: Ufuk Çelikcan

Gate-Level Minimization section instructor: Ufuk Çelikcan Compleity of Digital Circuits Directly related to the compleity of the algebraic epression we use to build the circuit. Truth table may lead to

### Date Performed: Marks Obtained: /10. Group Members (ID):. Experiment # 04. Boolean Expression Simplification and Implementation

Name: Instructor: Engr. Date Performed: Marks Obtained: /10 Group Members (ID):. Checked By: Date: Experiment # 04 Boolean Expression Simplification and Implementation OBJECTIVES: To understand the utilization

Summary Boolean Addition In Boolean algebra, a variable is a symbol used to represent an action, a condition, or data. A single variable can only have a value of or 0. The complement represents the inverse

### ELCT201: DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN

ELCT201: DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN Dr. Eng. Haitham Omran, haitham.omran@guc.edu.eg Dr. Eng. Wassim Alexan, wassim.joseph@guc.edu.eg Lecture 3 Following the slides of Dr. Ahmed H. Madian ذو الحجة 1438 ه Winter

### Objectives: 1- Bolean Algebra. Eng. Ayman Metwali

Objectives: Chapter 3 : 1- Boolean Algebra Boolean Expressions Boolean Identities Simplification of Boolean Expressions Complements Representing Boolean Functions 2- Logic gates 3- Digital Components 4-

### UNIT II. Circuit minimization

UNIT II Circuit minimization The complexity of the digital logic gates that implement a Boolean function is directly related to the complexity of the algebraic expression from which the function is implemented.

### Simplification of Boolean Functions

Simplification of Boolean Functions Contents: Why simplification? The Map Method Two, Three, Four and Five variable Maps. Simplification of two, three, four and five variable Boolean function by Map method.

### UNIT 2 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

UNIT 2 BOOLEN LGEBR Spring 2 2 Contents Introduction Basic operations Boolean expressions and truth tables Theorems and laws Basic theorems Commutative, associative, and distributive laws Simplification

### SYNERGY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,DHENKANAL LECTURE NOTES ON DIGITAL ELECTRONICS CIRCUIT(SUBJECT CODE:PCEC4202)

Lecture No:5 Boolean Expressions and Definitions Boolean Algebra Boolean Algebra is used to analyze and simplify the digital (logic) circuits. It uses only the binary numbers i.e. 0 and 1. It is also called

### CS6201 DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Lecture Notes

CS6201 DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEM DESIGN Lecture Notes 1.1 Introduction: UNIT I BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND LOGIC GATES Like normal algebra, Boolean algebra uses alphabetical letters to denote variables. Unlike

### LOGIC DESIGN. Dr. Mahmoud Abo_elfetouh

LOGIC DESIGN Dr. Mahmoud Abo_elfetouh Course objectives This course provides you with a basic understanding of what digital devices are, how they operate, and how they can be designed to perform useful

### Binary logic. Dr.Abu-Arqoub

Binary logic Binary logic deals with variables like (a, b, c,, x, y) that take on two discrete values (, ) and with operations that assume logic meaning ( AND, OR, NOT) Truth table is a table of all possible

### Lecture (05) Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates

Lecture (05) Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates By: Dr. Ahmed ElShafee ١ Minterms and Maxterms consider two binary variables x and y combined with an AND operation. Since eachv ariable may appear in either

### QUESTION BANK FOR TEST

CSCI 2121 Computer Organization and Assembly Language PRACTICE QUESTION BANK FOR TEST 1 Note: This represents a sample set. Please study all the topics from the lecture notes. Question 1. Multiple Choice

### LOGIC CIRCUITS. Kirti P_Didital Design 1

LOGIC CIRCUITS Kirti P_Didital Design 1 Introduction The digital system consists of two types of circuits, namely (i) Combinational circuits and (ii) Sequential circuit A combinational circuit consists

### Karnaugh Map (K-Map) Karnaugh Map. Karnaugh Map Examples. Ch. 2.4 Ch. 2.5 Simplification using K-map

Karnaugh Map (K-Map) Ch. 2.4 Ch. 2.5 Simplification using K-map A graphical map method to simplify Boolean function up to 6 variables A diagram made up of squares Each square represents one minterm (or

### Menu. Algebraic Simplification - Boolean Algebra EEL3701 EEL3701. MSOP, MPOS, Simplification

Menu Minterms & Maxterms SOP & POS MSOP & MPOS Simplification using the theorems/laws/axioms Look into my... 1 Definitions (Review) Algebraic Simplification - Boolean Algebra Minterms (written as m i ):

### Chapter 2: Combinational Systems

Uchechukwu Ofoegbu Chapter 2: Combinational Systems Temple University Adapted from Alan Marcovitz s Introduction to Logic and Computer Design Riddle Four switches can be turned on or off. One is the switch

### B.Tech II Year I Semester (R13) Regular Examinations December 2014 DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN

B.Tech II Year I Semester () Regular Examinations December 2014 (Common to IT and CSE) (a) If 1010 2 + 10 2 = X 10, then X is ----- Write the first 9 decimal digits in base 3. (c) What is meant by don

### TWO-LEVEL COMBINATIONAL LOGIC

TWO-LEVEL COMBINATIONAL LOGIC OVERVIEW Canonical forms To-level simplification Boolean cubes Karnaugh maps Quine-McClusky (Tabulation) Method Don't care terms Canonical and Standard Forms Minterms and

### Outcomes. Unit 9. Logic Function Synthesis KARNAUGH MAPS. Implementing Combinational Functions with Karnaugh Maps

.. Outcomes Unit I can use Karnaugh maps to synthesize combinational functions with several outputs I can determine the appropriate size and contents of a memory to implement any logic function (i.e. truth

### DIGITAL ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS

DIGITAL ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS SUBJECT CODE: PEI4I103 B.Tech, Fourth Semester Prepared By Dr. Kanhu Charan Bhuyan Asst. Professor Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

### Gate-Level Minimization

MEC520 디지털공학 Gate-Level Minimization Jee-Hwan Ryu School of Mechanical Engineering Gate-Level Minimization-The Map Method Truth table is unique Many different algebraic expression Boolean expressions may

### Slide Set 5. for ENEL 353 Fall Steve Norman, PhD, PEng. Electrical & Computer Engineering Schulich School of Engineering University of Calgary

Slide Set 5 for ENEL 353 Fall 207 Steve Norman, PhD, PEng Electrical & Computer Engineering Schulich School of Engineering University of Calgary Fall Term, 207 SN s ENEL 353 Fall 207 Slide Set 5 slide

### This tutorial gives a complete understanding on Computer Logical Organization starting from basic computer overview till its advanced architecture.

About the Tutorial Computer Logical Organization refers to the level of abstraction above the digital logic level, but below the operating system level. At this level, the major components are functional

### SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT. Mathematics. Numbers & Number Systems

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT Mathematics Numbers & Number Systems Introduction Numbers and Their Properties Multiples and Factors The Division Algorithm Prime and Composite Numbers Prime Factors

### Chapter 2 Combinational

Computer Engineering 1 (ECE290) Chapter 2 Combinational Logic Circuits Part 2 Circuit Optimization HOANG Trang 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview Part 1 Gate Circuits and Boolean Equations Binary Logic

### ENGINEERS ACADEMY. 7. Given Boolean theorem. (a) A B A C B C A B A C. (b) AB AC BC AB BC. (c) AB AC BC A B A C B C.

Digital Electronics Boolean Function QUESTION BANK. The Boolean equation Y = C + C + C can be simplified to (a) (c) A (B + C) (b) AC (d) C. The Boolean equation Y = (A + B) (A + B) can be simplified to

### Code No: R Set No. 1

Code No: R059210504 Set No. 1 II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN ( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology and Computer Science

### DIGITAL ELECTRONICS. Vayu Education of India

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS ARUN RANA Assistant Professor Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Doon Valley Institute of Engineering & Technology Karnal, Haryana (An ISO 9001:2008 ) Vayu Education

### Specifying logic functions

CSE4: Components and Design Techniques for Digital Systems Specifying logic functions Instructor: Mohsen Imani Slides from: Prof.Tajana Simunic and Dr.Pietro Mercati We have seen various concepts: Last

### (Refer Slide Time 6:48)

Digital Circuits and Systems Prof. S. Srinivasan Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras Lecture - 8 Karnaugh Map Minimization using Maxterms We have been taking about

### Logic Design: Part 2

Orange Coast College Business Division Computer Science Department CS 6- Computer Architecture Logic Design: Part 2 Where are we? Number systems Decimal Binary (and related Octal and Hexadecimal) Binary

### COMBINATIONAL LOGIC CIRCUITS

COMBINATIONAL LOGIC CIRCUITS 4.1 INTRODUCTION The digital system consists of two types of circuits, namely: (i) Combinational circuits and (ii) Sequential circuits A combinational circuit consists of logic

### All arithmetic operations performed with Boolean quantities have but one of two possible

UNIT 1 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND MINIMIZATION 1.1 Introduction: The English mathematician George Boole (1815-1864) sought to give symbolic form to Aristotle s system of logic. Boole wrote a treatise on the subject

### BINARY SYSTEM. Binary system is used in digital systems because it is:

CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER CONTENTS 2.1 Binary System 2.2 Binary Arithmetic Operation 2.3 Signed & Unsigned Numbers 2.4 Arithmetic Operations of Signed Numbers 2.5 Hexadecimal Number System 2.6 Octal Number System

### CS470: Computer Architecture. AMD Quad Core

CS470: Computer Architecture Yashwant K. Malaiya, Professor malaiya@cs.colostate.edu AMD Quad Core 1 Architecture Layers Building blocks Gates, flip-flops Functional bocks: Combinational, Sequential Instruction

### 數位系統 Digital Systems 朝陽科技大學資工系. Speaker: Fuw-Yi Yang 楊伏夷. 伏夷非征番, 道德經察政章 (Chapter 58) 伏者潛藏也道紀章 (Chapter 14) 道無形象, 視之不可見者曰夷

數位系統 Digital Systems Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chaoyang University of Technology 朝陽科技大學資工系 Speaker: Fuw-Yi Yang 楊伏夷 伏夷非征番, 道德經察政章 (Chapter 58) 伏者潛藏也道紀章 (Chapter 14) 道無形象,

### Bawar Abid Abdalla. Assistant Lecturer Software Engineering Department Koya University

Logic Design First Stage Lecture No.6 Boolean Algebra Bawar Abid Abdalla Assistant Lecturer Software Engineering Department Koya University Outlines Boolean Operations Laws of Boolean Algebra Rules of

### Boolean algebra. June 17, Howard Huang 1

Boolean algebra Yesterday we talked about how analog voltages can represent the logical values true and false. We introduced the basic Boolean operations AND, OR and NOT, which can be implemented in hardware

### Lecture 4: Implementation AND, OR, NOT Gates and Complement

EE210: Switching Systems Lecture 4: Implementation AND, OR, NOT Gates and Complement Prof. YingLi Tian Feb. 13, 2018 Department of Electrical Engineering The City College of New York The City University

### D I G I T A L C I R C U I T S E E

D I G I T A L C I R C U I T S E E Digital Circuits Basic Scope and Introduction This book covers theory solved examples and previous year gate question for following topics: Number system, Boolean algebra,

### Software Engineering 2DA4. Slides 2: Introduction to Logic Circuits

Software Engineering 2DA4 Slides 2: Introduction to Logic Circuits Dr. Ryan Leduc Department of Computing and Software McMaster University Material based on S. Brown and Z. Vranesic, Fundamentals of Digital

### NH 67, Karur Trichy Highways, Puliyur C.F, Karur District UNIT-II COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS

NH 67, Karur Trichy Highways, Puliyur C.F, 639 114 Karur District DEPARTMENT OF ELETRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING COURSE NOTES SUBJECT: DIGITAL ELECTRONICS CLASS: II YEAR ECE SUBJECT CODE: EC2203

### Boolean Algebra. BME208 Logic Circuits Yalçın İŞLER

Boolean Algebra BME28 Logic Circuits Yalçın İŞLER islerya@yahoo.com http://me.islerya.com 5 Boolean Algebra /2 A set of elements B There exist at least two elements x, y B s. t. x y Binary operators: +

### Incompletely Specified Functions with Don t Cares 2-Level Transformation Review Boolean Cube Karnaugh-Map Representation and Methods Examples

Lecture B: Logic Minimization Incompletely Specified Functions with Don t Cares 2-Level Transformation Review Boolean Cube Karnaugh-Map Representation and Methods Examples Incompletely specified functions

### Contents. Chapter 3 Combinational Circuits Page 1 of 34

Chapter 3 Combinational Circuits Page of 34 Contents Contents... 3 Combinational Circuits... 2 3. Analysis of Combinational Circuits... 2 3.. Using a Truth Table... 2 3..2 Using a Boolean unction... 4

### Introduction to Computer Architecture

Boolean Operators The Boolean operators AND and OR are binary infix operators (that is, they take two arguments, and the operator appears between them.) A AND B D OR E We will form Boolean Functions of

### DKT 122/3 DIGITAL SYSTEM 1

Company LOGO DKT 122/3 DIGITAL SYSTEM 1 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA (PART 2) Boolean Algebra Contents Boolean Operations & Expression Laws & Rules of Boolean algebra DeMorgan s Theorems Boolean analysis of logic circuits

### Spring 2010 CPE231 Digital Logic Section 1 Quiz 1-A. Convert the following numbers from the given base to the other three bases listed in the table:

Section 1 Quiz 1-A Convert the following numbers from the given base to the other three bases listed in the table: Decimal Binary Hexadecimal 1377.140625 10101100001.001001 561.24 454.3125 111000110.0101

### Computer Engineering Chapter 3 Boolean Algebra

Computer Engineering Chapter 3 Boolean Algebra Hiroaki Kobayashi 5/30/2011 Ver. 06102011 5/30/2011 Computer Engineering 1 Agenda in Chapter 3 What is Boolean Algebra Basic Boolean/Logical Operations (Operators)

### 2. BOOLEAN ALGEBRA 2.1 INTRODUCTION

2. BOOLEAN ALGEBRA 2.1 INTRODUCTION In the previous chapter, we introduced binary numbers and binary arithmetic. As you saw in binary arithmetic and in the handling of floating-point numbers, there is

### Boolean Analysis of Logic Circuits

Course: B.Sc. Applied Physical Science (Computer Science) Year & Sem.: IInd Year, Sem - IIIrd Subject: Computer Science Paper No.: IX Paper Title: Computer System Architecture Lecture No.: 7 Lecture Title: