Chapter 2 Part 4 Combinational Logic Circuits


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1 University of Wisconsin  Madison EE/omp Sci 352 Digital Systems undamentals Kewal K. Saluja and Yu Hen Hu Spring 2002 hapter 2 Part 4 ombinational Logic ircuits Originals by: harles R. Kime and Tom Kamisnski Modified for course use by: Kewal K. Saluja and Yu Hen Hu Standard orms Standard SumofProducts (SOP) form: equations are written as an OR of ND terms Standard ProductofSums (POS) form: equations are written as an ND of OR terms Examples: + + ( + ) (+ + ) SOP: POS: These mixed forms are not SOP or POS ( + )( + ) + (+ ) hapter
2 Standard SumofProducts (SOP) Sum of Minterms form for n variables can be written down directly from a truth table. Implementation of this form is a twolevel network of gates such that: The first level consists of ninput ND gates, and The second level is a single OR gate (with fewer than 2n inputs). This form: is usually not a minimum literal expression, and leads to a more expensive implementation (in terms of two levels of ND and OR gates) than needed. hapter Standard SumofProducts (SOP) Therefore, we try to combine terms to get a lower literal cost expression, leading to a less expensive implementation. Example: (,, ) = Sm(1,4,5,6,7) Simplifying: The anonical SumofMinterms form has (5 * 3) = 15 literals and 5 terms. The reduced SOP form has 3 literals and 2 terms. hapter
3 ND/OR Twolevel Implementation of SOP Expression The two implementations for are shown below: (Which is simpler?) hapter Standard ProductofSums (POS) Product of Maxterms form for n variables can be written down directly from a truth table. Implementation of this form is a twolevel network of gates such that: The first level consists of ninput OR gates, and The second level is a single ND gate (with fewer than 2n inputs). This form: is usually not a minimum literal expression, and leads to a more expensive implementation (in terms of two levels of ND and OR gates) than needed. hapter
4 Standard ProductofSums (POS) Therefore, we try to combine terms to get a lower literal cost expression, leading to a less expensive implementation. Example: (,,) = PM(0,2,3) Simplifying The anonical Productof Maxterms form had (3 * 3) = 9 literals and 3 terms. The reduced POS form had 4 literals and 2 terms. hapter OR/ND Twolevel Implementation The two implementations for are shown below: (Which is simpler?) hapter
5 SOP and POS Observations The previous examples show several things: anonical orms (Sumofminterms, Productof Maxterms), or other standard forms (SOP, POS) can differ in literal cost. oolean algebra can be used to manipulate equations into simpler forms. Simpler equations lead to simpler two level implementations Questions: How can we attain a minimum literal expression? Is there only one minimum cost circuit? hapter Equivalent ost ircuits Given (,, ) = (0,2,3,4,5,7) = = = ( + ) + ( + ) + ( + ) = + + y pairing terms differently at the start: = We arrive at: = + + OTH HVE THE SME LITERLS OUNTS ND NUMER O TERMS!! hapter
6 oolean unction Simplification Reducing the literal cost of a oolean Expression leads to simpler networks. Simpler networks are less expensive to implement. oolean lgebra can help us minimize literal cost. When do we stop trying to reduce the cost? Do we know when we have a minimum cost solution? We will introduce a systematic way to arrive at a minimum cost, twolevel POS or SOP network. hapter
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