MIPS ISA and MIPS Assembly. CS301 Prof. Szajda

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1 MIPS ISA and MIPS Assembly CS301 Prof. Szajda

2 Administrative HW #2 due Wednesday (9/11) at 5pm Lab #2 due Friday (9/13) 1:30pm Read Appendix B5, B6, B.9 and Chapter (if you have not already done so!)

3 MIPS ISA

4 MIPS ISA Small number of simple instructions (RISC) w Instructions are fixed size of 32b w Very rigid structure Load/Store Architecture w Few addressing modes

5 Register File Register file w 32 integer w 32 single precision floating point Integer What s going on here?! w Volatile - scratch registers $t0 - $t9 ($8-$15, $24-$25) w Non-volatile - called function does save/ restore $s0 - $s7 ($16-$23)

6 Special Integer Registers Zero w $0 Return values w $v0, $v1 ($2, $3) Function arguments w $a0-$a3 ($4-$7) w If more than 4 registers required, then place parameters above frame pointer (at higher address) Stack pointer - $sp ($29) Frame pointer - $fp ($30) w Usually not used in our examples Return address - $ra ($31)

7 Floating Point Registers 32 single-precision registers w $f0, $f1,..., $f31 Double precision uses 2 single precision fp registers w reference even numbered registers Special registers w Return values $f0-$f3 w Function arguments $f12 - $f15

8 Data Movement Instructions move rd, rs w Move register rs to rd mov.d fd, fs w Move double precision fp register fs to fd mtc1 fd, rs move to coprocessor 1 w Move rs register to fd mfc1 rd, fs move from coprocessor 1 w Move fp register fs to rd

9 Load/Store Instructions la rt, address w load computed address (not contents of location) into register rt lw rt, address w load word in memory location address into register rt sw rt, address w store value in register rt into memory at location address li rt, imm w load integer constant imm into register rt l.d rt, address w load double precision fp value from memory location address into fp register rt and rt+1

10 Arithmetic Instructions add rd, rs, rt w rd = rs + rt addi rd, rs, imm w rd = rs + imm sub rd, rs, rt w rd = rs - rt mul rd, rs, rt multiply (without overflow) w rd = rs rt puts low order 32 bits of product in rd div rd, rs, rt divide (without overflow) w rd = rs / rt Floating point versions exist usually with a.d tacked on (add.d)

11 Shift Operators sll rd, rt, sa w rd = rt << sa w Zero fill sra rd, rt, sa w rd = rt >> sa w Sign fill srl rd, rt, sa w rd = rt >> sa w Zero fill shift left logical shift right arithmetic shift right logical

12 Comparison Instructions slt rd, rs, rt w Set register rd to 1 if rs < rt, otherwise set rd to 0 slti rd, rs, imm w Set register rd to 1 if rs < imm, otherwise set rd to 0 Similar instructions for greater than seq rd, rs, rt w Set rd to 1 if rs == rt, otherwise set rd to 0

13 Branch Instructions 16-b instruction offset field ( forward, 2 15 back) b label w Unconditionally branch to instruction at label beq rs, rt, label w Conditionally branch to label if rs == rt bne, bgt, bge,...

14 Jump Instructions 26-bit address field j target w Unconditionally jump to instruction at target jal target jump and link w Unconditionally jump to instruction at target w Save address of next instruction in register $ra w bal is like jal however jal must be used if target is from another file

15 Assembly Programs

16 Note: You will only be allowed to use the instructions listed in Appendix B.10 in your programs! 16

17 # assign.asm # simple program to modify a global variable.data # add what follows to the data section x:.word 5 # create global integer variable x. Set to 5..text # add what follows to the text.align 2 # Align on word boundaries.globl main # "exports" the symbol main so it is # accessible to other modules main: # we don't need a frame la $t0, x # $t0 = &x lw $t1, 0($t0) # $t1 = x addi $t1,$t1,2 # $t1 = $t1 + 2 sw $t1, 0($t0) # x = $t1 jr $ra # return - main is a function, too

18 Assembly File Segments w.data Integer (.word), character (.byte), arrays of these, String (.asciiz) w.text Instructions the z is required if you want your string to be null terminated! main should be first instruction and needs to be specified as.globl an assembler directive

19 MIPS Labels MIPS assembly code contains instructions Data and instructions can be prefaced with a label followed by a colon w main: Instructions can have operands that are: w registers w constants/immediates w addresses Explicit numbers Register + offset Labels Assembler will replace labels with corresponding addresses when creating machine language

20 Examples Suppose $s0 = a, $s1 = b, $s2 = c, $s3 = d Write MIPS instructions for the following code: b = (c - 1) (a + d)

21 Examples Suppose $s0 = a, $s1 = b, $s2 = c, $s3 = d Write MIPS instructions for the following code: if(a > b) c = c+1; else d = d+1;

22 Examples Suppose A is an array of 10 integers w How would I declare A as a global array? Suppose $s0 = A, $s1 = g, $s2 = h, $s3 = i Write MIPS instructions for the following code: g = h +A[i];

23 Using Strings ASCII w 8-bit used to represent characters To access individual characters, use w lb $t0, 0($sp) # read character w sb $t0, 0($sp) # write character Strings w Array of characters w Terminated with byte whose value is 0 (null)

24 Examples Suppose A is a string w How would I declare A as a global variable? Suppose $s0 = A, $s1 = g, $s2 = h, $s3 = i Write MIPS instructions for the following code: g = A[i];

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