# Switching Theory And Logic Design UNIT-II GATE LEVEL MINIMIZATION

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1 Switching Theory And Logic Design UNIT-II GATE LEVEL MINIMIZATION Two-variable k-map: A two-variable k-map can have 2 2 =4 possible combinations of the input variables A and B. Each of these combinations, A B,A B,AB,AB(in the SOP form) is called a minterm. The minterm may be represented in terms of their decimal designations m0 for A B, m1 for A B,m2 for AB and m3 for AB, assuming that A represents the MSB. The letter m stands for minterm and the subscript represents the decimal designation of the minterm. The presence or absence of a minterm in the expression indicates that the output of the logic circuit assumes logic 1 or logic 0 level for that combination of input variables. The expression f=a B,+A B+AB+AB, it can be expressed using min term as F= m0+m2+m3= m(0,2,3) Using Truth Table: Minterm Inputs Output A B F A 1 in the output contains that particular minterm in its sum and a 0 in that column indicates that the particular mintermdoes not appear in the expression for output. this information can also be indicated by a two-variable k-map. Mapping of SOP Expresions: A two-variable k-map has 22=4 squares.these squares are called cells. Each square on the k- map represents a unique minterm. The minterm designation of the squares are placed in any square, indicates that the corresponding minterm does output expressions. And a 0 or no entry in any square indicates that the corresponding minterm does not appear in the expression for output. The minterms of a two-variable k-map

2 The mapping of the expressions = m(0,2,3)is EX: Map the expressions f=a B+AB F= m 1 +m 2= m(1,2)the k-map is k-map of m(0,2,3) Minimizations of SOP expressions: To minimize Boolean expressions given in the SOP form by using the k-map, look for adjacent adjacent squares having 1 s minterms adjacent to each other, and combine them to form larger squares to eliminate some variables. Two squares are said to be adjacent to each other, if their minterms differ in only one variable. (i.e, A B & AB differ only in one variable. so they may be combined to form a 2-square to eliminate the variable B.similarly all other. The necessary condition for adjacency of minterms is that their decimal designations must differ by a power of 2. A minterm can be combined with any number of minterms adjacent to it to form larger squares. Two minterms which are adjacent to each other can be combined to form a bigger square called a 2-square or a pair. This eliminates one variable the variable that is not common to both the minterms. For EX: m0 and m1 can be combined to yield, f 1 = m0+m1=ab+a B=A (B+B)=A m0 and m2 can be combined to yield, f 2 = m0+m2=a B+AB=B(A + A )=B m1 and m3 can be combined to yield,

3 f 3 = m1+m3=a B+AB=B(A + A )=B m2 and m3 can be combined to yield, f 4 = m2+m3=ab+ab=a(b+b)=a m 0,m 1,m 2 and m 3 can be combined to yield, =A B+AB +AB+AB =A (B+B) +A(B+B) =A +A =1 f1=a f2=b f3=b f4=a f5=1 The possible minterm groupings in a two-variable k-map. Two 2-squares adjacent to each other can be combined to form a 4-square. A 4-square eliminates 2 variables. A 4-square is called a quad. To read the squares on the map after minimization, consider only those variables which remain constant through the square, and ignore the variables which are varying. Write the non complemented variable if the variable is remaining constant as a 1, and the complemented variable if the variable is remaining constant as a 0, and write the variables as a product term. In the above figure f 1 read asa, because, along the square, A remains constant as a 0, that is, as A, where as B is changing from 0 to 1. EX: Reduce the minterm f=a B+AB+AB using mapping Expressed in terms of minterms, the given expression is F=m 0 +m 1 +m 2 + m 3 =m (0,1,3)& the figure shows the k-map for f and its reduction. In one 2-square, A is constant as a 0 but B varies from a 0 to a 1, and in the other 2- square, B is constant as a 1 but A varies from a 0 to a 1. So, the reduced expressions is A +B. It requires two gate inputs for realization as f=a +B (k-map in SOP form, and logic diagram.)

4 The main criterion in the design of a digital circuit is that its cost should be as low as possible. For that the expression used to realize that circuit must be minimal.since the cost is proportional to number of gate inputs in the circuit in the circuit, an expression is considered minimal only if it corresponds to the least possible number of gate inputs. & there is no guarantee for that k-map in SOP is the real minimal. To obtain real minimal expression, obtain the minimal expression both in SOP & POS form form by using k-maps and take the minimal of these two minimals. The 1 s on the k-map indicate the presence of minterms in the output expressions, where as the 0s indicate the absence of minterms.since the absence of a minterm in the SOP expression means the presense of the corresponding maxterm in the POS expression of the same.when a SOP expression is plotted on the k-map, 0s or no entries on the k-map represent the maxterms. To obtain the minimal expression in the POS form, consider the 0s on the k-map and follow the procedure used for combining 1s. Also, since the absence of a maxterm in the POS expression means the presence of the corresponding minterm in the SOP expression of the same, when a POS expression is plotted on the k-map, 1s or no entries on the k-map represent the minterms. Mapping of POS expressions: Each sum term in the standard POS expression is called a maxterm. A function in two variables (A, B) has four possible maxterms, A+B,A+B,A +B,A +B. They are represented as M 0, M 1, M2, and M3respectively. The uppercase letter M stands for maxterm and its subscript denotes the decimal designation of that maxterm obtained by treating the non-complemented variable as a 0 and the complemented variable as a 1 and putting them side by side for reading the decimal equivalent of the binary number so formed. For mapping a POS expression on to the k-map, 0s are placed in the squares corresponding to the maxterms which are presented in the expression an d1s are placed in the squares corresponding to the maxterm which are not present in the expression. The decimal designation of the squares of the squares for maxterms is the same as that for the minterms. A two-variable k-map & the associated maxterms are asthe maxterms of a two-variable k-map The possible maxterm groupings in a two-variable k-map

5 Minimization of POS Expressions: To obtain the minimal expression in POS form, map the given POS expression on to the K-map and combine the adjacent 0s into as large squares as possible. Read the squares putting the complemented variable if its value remains constant as a 1 and the non-complemented variable if its value remains constant as a 0 along the entire square ( ignoring the variables which do not remain constant throughout the square) and then write them as a sum term. Various maxterm combinations and the corresponding reduced expressions are shown in figure. In this f 1 read as A because A remains constant as a 0 throughout the square and B changes from a 0 to a 1. f 2 is read as B because B remains constant along the square as a 1 and A changes from a 0 to a 1. f 5 Is read as a 0 because both the variables are changing along the square. Ex: Reduce the expression f=(a+b)(a+b )(A +B ) using mapping. The given expression in terms of maxterms is f=πm(0,1,3). It requires two gates inputs for realization of the reduced expression as F=AB K-map in POS form and logic diagram In this given expression,the maxterm M 2 is absent. This is indicated by a 1 on the k-map. The corresponding SOP expression is m 2 or AB. This realization is the same as that for the POS form. Three-variable K-map: A function in three variables (A, B, C) expressed in the standard SOP form can have eight possible combinations: ABC, ABC,ABC,ABC,ABC,ABC,ABC, and ABC. Each one of these combinations designate d by m0,m1,m2,m3,m4,m5,m6, and m7, respectively, is called a minterm. A is the MSB of the minterm designator and C is the LSB. In the standard POS form, the eight possible combinations are:a+b+c, A+B+C, A+B+C,A+B + C,A + B + C,A + B + C,A + B + C,A + B + C. Each oneof these combinations designated by M 0, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, and M7respectively is called a maxterm. A is the MSB of the maxterm designator and C is the LSB. A three-variable k-map has, therefore, 8(=2 3 ) squares or cells, and each square on the map represents a minterm or maxterm as shown in figure. The small number on the top right corner of each cell indicates the minterm or maxterm designation.

6 The three-variable k-map. The binary numbers along the top of the map indicate the condition of B and C for each column. The binary number along the left side of the map against each row indicates the condition of A for that row. For example, the binary number 01 on top of the second column in fig indicates that the variable B appears in complemented form and the variable C in noncomplemented form in all the minterms in that column. The binary number 0 on the left of the first row indicates that the variable A appears in complemented form in all the minterms in that row, the binary numbers along the top of the k-map are not in normal binary order. They are, infact, in the Gray code. This is to ensure that twophysically adjacent squares are really adjacent, i.e., their minterms or maxterms differ by only one variable. Ex: Map the expression f=: A BC+A BC +ABC+ABC +ABC A BC =010=m 2; In the given expression, the minterms are : A BC=001=m 1 ; ABC=101=m 5; ABC =110=m 6 ;ABC=111=m 7. So the expression is f= m(1,5,2,6,7)= m(1,2,5,6,7). The corresponding k-map is K-map in SOP form Ex: Map the expression f= (A+B+C),(A + B + C ) (A + B + C )(A + B + C )(A + B + C) In the given expression the maxterms are :A+B+C=000=M 0 ;A + B + C =101=M 5 ;A + B + C = 111=M 7 ; A + B + C =011=M 3 ;A + B + C=110=M 6. So the expression is f = π M (0,5,7,3,6)= π M (0,3,5,6,7). The mapping of the expression is

10 Four variable k-maps: Four variable k-map expressions can have 2 4 =16 possible combinations of input variables such as A BC D,A BC D, ABCD with minterm designations m 0,m m 15 respectively in SOP form & A+B+C+D, A+B+C+D, A + B + C + D with maxterms M 0,M 1, M 15 respectively in POS form. It has 2 4 =16 squares or cells.the binary number designations of rows & columns are in the gray code. Here follows 01 & 10 follows 11 called Adjacency ordering. SOP form POS form EX:

11 Five variable k-map: Five variable k-map can have 2 5 =32 possible combinations of input variable as A BC DE,A BC DE, ABCDE with minterms m 0, m m 31 respectively in SOP & A+B+C+D+E, A+B+C+DE, A + B + C + D+E with maxterms M 0,M 1, M 31 respectively in POS form. It has 2 5 =32 squares or cells of the k-map are divided into 2 blocks of 16 squares each.the left block represents minterms from m 0 to m 15 in which A is a 0, and the right block represents minterms from m 16 to m 31 in which A is 1.The 5-variable k-map may contain 2-squares, 4-squares, 8-squares, 16-squares or 32-squares involving these two blocks. Squares are also considered adjacent in these two blocks, if when superimposing one block on top of another, the squares coincide with one another. Grouping s is

12 Ex: F= m(0,1,4,5,6,13,14,15,22,24,25,28,29,30,31) is SOP POS is F=πM(2,3,7,8,9,10,11,12,16,17,18,19,20,21,23,26,27) The real minimal expression is the minimal of the SOP and POS forms. The reduction is done as 1. There is no isolated 1s 2. M 12 can go only with m 13. Form a 2-square which is read as A BCD 3. M 0 can go with m 2,m 16 and m 18. so form a 4-square which is read as B C E 4. M 20,m 21,m 17 and m 16 form a 4-square which is read as AB D 5. M2,m3,m18,m19,m10,m11,m26 and m27 form an 8-square which is read as C d 6. Write all the product terms in SOP form. So the minimal expression is F min = A BCD +B C E +AB D +C D(16 inputs) In the POS k-map,the reduction is done as: 1. There are no isolated 0s 3. 4.M 8 5. M 28 6.M Sum terms in POS form. So the minimal expression in POS is F min = A BcD +B C E +AB D +C D

13 Six variable k-map: Six variable k-map can have 2 6 =64 combinations as A BC DEF,A BC DEF, ABCDEF with minterms m 0, m m 63 respectively in SOP & (A+B+C+D+E+F), (A + B + C + D+E + F) with maxterms M 0,M 1, M 63 respectively in POS form. It has 2 6 =64 squares or cells of the k-map are divided into 4 blocks of 16 squares each. Some possible groupings in a six variable k-map Don t care combinations:for certain input combinations, the value of the output is unspecified either because the input combinations are invalid or because the precise value of the output is of no consequence. The combinations for which the value of experiments are not specified are called don t care combinations are invalid or because the precise value of the output is of no consequence. The combinations for which the value of expressions is not specified are called don t care combinations or Optional Combinations, such expressions stand incompletely specified. The output is a don t care for these invalid combinations. Ex:In XS-3 code system, the binary states 0000, 0001, 0010,1101,1110,1111 are unspecified. & never occur called don t cares. A standard SOP expression with don t cares can be converted into a standard POS form by keeping the don t cares as they are & writing the missing minterms of the SOP form as the maxterms of the POS form viceversa. Don t cares denoted by X or φ

14 Ex:f= m(1,5,6,12,13,14)+d(2,4) Or f=π M(0,3,7,9,10,11,15).πd(2,4) SOP minimal form f min = BC +BD+A CD POS minimal form f min =(B+D)(A +B)(C +D) = B + D + A + B + (C + D) Prime implicants, Essential Prime implicants, Redundant prime implicants: Each square or rectangle made up of the bunch of adjacent minterms is called a subcube. Each of these subcubes is called a Prime implicant (PI). The PI which contains at leastone which cannot be covered by any other prime implicants is called as Essential Prime implicant (EPI).The PI whose each 1 is covered at least by one EPI is called a Redundant Prime implicant (RPI). A PI which is neither an EPI nor a RPI is called a Selective Prime implicant (SPI). The function has unique MSP comprising EPI is F(A,B,C,D)=A CD+ABC+AC D +A BC The RPI BD may be included without changing the function but the resulting expression would not be in minimal SOP(MSP) form. Essential and Redundant Prime Implicants

15 F(A,B,C,D)= m(0,4,5,10,11,13,15) SPI are marked by dotted squares, shows MSP form of a function need not be unique. Essential and Selective Prime Implicants Here, the MSP form is obtained by including two EPI s & selecting a set of SPI s to cover remaining uncovered minterms 5,13,15. & these can be covered as (A) (4,5) &(13,15) A BC +ABD (B) (5,13) & (13,15) BC D+ABD (C) (5,13) & (15,11) BC D+ACD F(A,B,C,D)=A C D+ABC EPI s + A BC +ABD (OR) F(A,B,C,D)=A C D+ABC EPI s + BC D+ABD (OR) F(A,B,C,D)=A C D+ABC EPI s + BC D+ACD False PI s Essential False PI s, Redundant False PI s & Selective False PI s: The maxterms are called falseminterms. The PI s is obtained by using the maxterms are called False PI s (FPI). The FPI which contains at least one 0 which can t be covered by only other FPI is called an Essential False Prime implicant (ESPI) F(A,B,C,D)= m(0,1,2,3,4,8,12) =π M(5,6,7,9,10,11,13,14,15) F min = (B+C )(A + C )(A + D)(B+D) All the FPI, EFPI s as each of them contain atleast one 0 which can t be covered by any other FPI

16 Essential False Prime implicants Consider Function F(A,B,C,D)= π M(0,1,2,6,8,10,11,12) Essential and Redundant False Prime Implicants Mapping when the function is not expressed in minterms (maxterms): An expression in k-map must be available as a sum (product) of minterms (maxterms). However if not so expressed, it is not necessary to expand the expression algebraically into its minterms (maxterms). Instead, expansion into minterms (maxterms) can be accomplished in the process of entering the terms of the expression on the k-map. Limitations of Karnaugh maps: Convenient as long as the number of variables does not exceed six. Manual technique, simplification process is heavily dependent on the human abilities. Quine-Mccluskey Method: It also known as Tabular method. It is more systematic method of minimizing expressions of even larger number of variables. It is suitable for hand computation as well as computation by machines i.e., programmable.. The procedure is based on repeated application of the combining theorem. PA+PA =P (P is set of literals) on all adjacent pairs of terms, yields the set of all PI s from which a minimal sum may be selected. Consider expression m(0,1,4,5)= A BC +A BC+ABC +ABC

17 First, second terms & third, fourth terms can be combined A B(C + C )+A B(C+C )=A B +AB Reduced to B(A + A)=B The same result can be obtained by combining m 0 & m 4 & m 1 &m 5 in first step & resulting terms in the second step. Procedure: Decimal Representation Don t cares PI chart EPI Dominating Rows & Columns Determination of Minimal expressions in comples cases. Branching Method:

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